Atsuko Yamahiro1* Cynthia Frank2 Qinxin Wang3 Fangyong Li4 Lydia A Barakat5 Michael J Kozal61MD, MPH, Internal Medicine, the Metro Health System, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
2PhD, Infectious Disease, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
3Biostatistics, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
4MPH, Biostatistics, Yale Center for Analytical Sciences, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
5MD, Infectious Disease, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
6MD, Infectious Disease, Yale University School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
*Corresponding author: Atsuko Yamahiro, MD, MPH, Internal Medicine, the Metro Health System, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, Tel: 216-778-2273; Fax: 216-778-5000; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background: Patients infected with HIV face unique psychosocial stressors thus good quality patient-provider relationships are essential.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether computers use by providers during outpatient visits for HIV-infected patients negatively affected the encounter.
Design/Participants: Two hundred HIV-infected patients and twenty HIV providers were surveyed at an adult HIV clinic in a cross sectional survey study.
Main Measures: Main measures used for this study were demographic variables and survey questions based on effects of computer use on interpersonal contact and communication using a Likert Scale.
Results: The majority of patients felt that it was appropriate for a provider to use a computer during the visit and were satisfied with the care they received. However, patients who did not own a personal computer, were female, had lower educational status, had detectable viral load, had lower CD4 cell count or had not disclosed their HIV status were more likely to negatively perceive provider computer use. Most providers felt that they missed non-verbal cues when using the computer (70%) and that computer use in the exam room did not improve the relationship with the patient (75%).
Conclusion: Providers can be assured that patients do not view the computer as negatively as they do. The study identified specific patient populations which may benefit from providers using the computer less in the exam room.
HIV; Computer; Electronic medical record; Patient-provider relations; Patient provider communication
In the United States, in the 1970s, the first Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems were developed with the goal to track and record patient data for the next visit. With the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in 1996, there was growing interest to expand the utility of EMR on how it could be used to adhere to laws of privacy and security of health information. In 2009, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinic Health (HITECH) Act was passed, which gave twenty billion dollars to promote and expand health information technology in health care. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services also provided incentive programs for hospitals and clinics to use EMRs. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology reported that from 2008 to 2015, EMR adoption doubled from 42% to 87% in office-based practices using any type of EMR . Thus, in the past 40 years, there has been a rapid development and intake of the EMR into health care in the United States.
EMR use is now a major component of ambulatory care [2,3] as it increases efficiency [4,5] and is thought to improve quality of care . As providers spend more time in front of the computer while interacting with the patient , there is concern that it will affect the patient provider communication through less eye contact and missed nonverbal communication [8-10].
The patient-provider relationship is a significant component of the delivery of healthcare and more so for patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These individuals face unique psychosocial stressors, including the chronic nature of the disease, need for strict adherence to medication regimens, and often multilayered stigma . Research has shown that a patient-centered approach and good quality patient-provider relationships for the care of HIV-infected patients promoted adherence to medication therapy [12-16] and was associated with an undetectable HIV viral load .
Research on computer use during the clinical encounter in the outpatient setting has demonstrated a positive to neutral effect on patient satisfaction [18-20] although no published studies have addressed computer use and the impact on the patient-provider relationship among HIV-infected patients. We further explore this complex interaction from both provider and patient perspectives by assessing the perceptions of both HIV-infected patients and providers on computer use during an outpatient encounter. These assessments were based on factors known to be associated with patient satisfaction  and the effects of computer use on interpersonal contact .
All patient participants were recruited from December 2014 to January 2015 at an adult ambulatory HIV clinic at an academic medical center, Yale New Haven Hospital, in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. The EMR system and computers were installed at this site in the year 2000, approximately 14 years prior to the study. The installment of the EMR system into the clinic was mandatory for all ambulatory clinics at Yale New Haven Hospital.
Patients were eligible to participate in the study if they were infected with HIV, had a routine or urgent care appointment with a provider (including attending physicians, resident physicians, physician assistants, or nurse practitioners; excluding nursing visits), were able to provide verbal informed consent, and were able to read and comprehend English. The study was approved by the Yale University Institutional Review Board.
Eligible participants were asked to participate at the time they arrived for their appointment or immediately after their encounter with their provider. After providing verbal informed consent, an anonymous survey was completed by the participants following their encounter with their provider. Surveys were compiled and coded by number prior to data entry. One researcher administered all of the surveys to minimize multiple surveys by any one participant.
All provider participants were recruited from the same adult ambulatory outpatient HIV clinic from February 2015 to August 2015. Providers are required to input data into the EMR for the clinic visits for purpose of billing and to be compensated for the clinic visits. The input of data is fixed, as visits require entry of data such as history, vital signs, physical exam, and concerns addressed during visit, and entry of orders such as blood work and prescription medications. However, the timing of when data is entered into the EMR varies by provider, based on provider preferences and visit with the patient. For example, some providers input data with the patient in the exam room to be efficient and complete work, while others input data after the visit in an effort to maintain the patient-provider relationship. Provider recruitment did not begin until after the patient participant recruitment was completed. Providers were eligible if they were attending physicians, resident physicians, physician assistants, or nurse practitioners; nurses and medical assistants were excluded.
Providers were approached before or after their clinic sessions. After providing verbal informed consent, an anonymous survey was completed by the participant. Surveys were compiled and coded by number prior to data entry. One researcher administered all of the surveys to minimize multiple surveys by any one participant.
Distinct surveys were designed for the patient and provider arms of the study. The patient survey was composed of forty-four questions, which included demographics, extent of personal computer use, selfreport of HIV viral load and CD4 cell count, as well as twenty-five items related to computer use during the clinical encounter and the patient-provider relationship. The provider survey comprised a total of thirty-one items, which included questions regarding demographics, computer use, as well as twenty-two items related to computer use during the clinical encounter and patient-provider relationship. A majority of the questions related to computer use during the clinical encounter and patient-provider relationship were the same for both surveys. Responses for both surveys were based on a four-point Likert scale  without a neutral option. Neutral option was omitted to avoid the respondents’ behavior of survey satisficing and answer choice ambivalence .
The characteristics of survey participants were summarized using frequency and percentage for categorical variables, and mean (standard deviation) and median (range) for continuous variables as appropriate. The comparison of responses between patients and providers were conducted using Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test. The four-scale responses were dichotomized as binary outcomes, (i.e. Agree vs. Disagree) for logistic regression analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association of patients’ characteristics and their response. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were presented. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significance level was set at P less than 0.05, two-sided.
Two hundred patient participants were surveyed with a median age of 52 years (range 20 to 76 years). Thirty-seven percent of patients were female and approximately half of the patients (52%) were African American. The majority of patients had a self-reported undetectable viral load (74%) and CD4 cell count greater than 200 cells/µL (71%). Most patients (86%) had disclosed their HIV status to another person, including a family member, significant other, friend, or colleague. Only a small percentage of patients (5%) were cared for by resident physicians. Other demographic factors are outlined in table 1.
|Number (N)||Percent (%)|
|Age||Years, Mean (SD)
Median (min, max)
|Education||Less than High School||50||25|
|High School Graduate||77||39|
|High School Graduate||73||36|
|Personal Computer Use||Yes||126||63|
|CD4 Cell Count||Greater than 200||143||71|
|Less than 200||22||11|
|HIV Disclosure Status||Disclosed||171||86|
Table 1: Demographics, Computer Use, and Medical Characteristics of Patient Participants.
PA: Physician Assistant; NP: Nurse Practitioner
Table 2 summarizes the patient’s response to select questions in the patient survey. Patients expressed a general positive attitude toward computer use in the exam room. Among the 200 patient participants, 192 (96%) responded that their providers used the computer during their visit. Among this subgroup, personal computer use, gender, education level, HIV viral load, CD4 cell count, and HIV disclosure status all served as significant predictors of whether a patient agreed with survey questions.
|Computers and Communication|
|When my provider is using and looking at the
|I can talk easily with my provider||95||5|
|I feel uncomfortable||13||87|
|my provider spends less time listening to
|my provider makes good eye contact with
|my provider is able to listen to me||94||6|
|my relationship with my provider is better||73||27|
|my visit is less personal||26||74|
|Computers and Time|
|My provider spends enough time talking to and examining me while using the computer||83||17|
|Computers and Privacy|
|I feel comfortable:|
|disclosing private information about myself while my provider uses the computer||88||12|
|with my provider using a computer to track information about me||93||7|
|Computers and Education|
|my lab results better when my provider
shows it to me on the computer screen
|my medical problems better when my provider shows it to me on the computer screen||81||19|
|what medications to take when my provider uses the computer||72||28|
|Computers and Satisfaction|
|I am satisfied with:|
|the amount of attention given to me by my provider||97||3|
|the way my provider listened to my
|the way my provider explained my health
|the medical care I receive from my provider||97||3|
Table 2: Select Survey Responses: Patient Attitude towards Provider Computer Use in the Exam Room.
Patients with personal computers voiced less concern for computer use by providers compared to those without personal computers. Patients without personal computers were more likely to agree that, “My provider spends less time listening to me when he/she uses the computer (Odds Ratio (OR) 4.2, 95% Confident Interval (CI) 1.7-10.7, P=0.003).” They were also more likely to agree that “My visit is less personal because my provider uses the computer (OR 2.5, CI 1.3-5.0, P=0.009).” Additionally, patients expressing less frequent computer use were more likely to agree that, “I wish my provider would let me see what he/she is doing on the computer” (Monthly use vs Daily use: OR 1.1, CI 0.3-4.6; Weekly use vs Daily use: OR 5.4, CI 1.7-17.6; P=0.02). Furthermore, monthly users were more likely than daily users to agree that “I wish my doctor would not use computer during my visit” (Monthly use vs Daily use: OR 8.9, CI 2.0-39.0, P=0.01).
When disaggregating data by gender, female patients were consistently more likely to disagree with several questions related to computer use and screen use during the visit compared to male patients. A higher proportion of women disagreed with the statements, “I understand my lab results better when my provider uses the computer and shows it to me on the computer screen” (OR 0.3, CI 0.1- 0.7, P=0.004) and, “I understand my medical problems better when my provider uses the computer and shows it to me on the computer screen” (OR 0.3, CI 0.2-0.8, P=0.008) compared to men. Additionally, female patients were less likely to agree that, “I understand what medications to take and how to take it better when my provider uses the computer” (OR 0.5, CI 0.2-0.9, P=0.02) compared to male patients.
In contrast to the differences between women and men, patients with high school degree or above (such a college or master’s degree) demonstrated less dissatisfaction with computer use in the exam room compared to those who had not completed either middle school or high school. Those with higher educational degree agreed less with the statement, “My visit is less personal because my provider uses the computer” (High School Degree vs No High School Degree, OR 0.3, CI 0.1- 0.7, Bachelor’s Degree or Above vs No High School Degree, OR 0.4, CI 0.2-1.0, P=0.02), and were more likely to agree that their provider was skilled at using the computer (High School Degree vs No High School Degree, OR 9.1, CI 1.0-80.7, P=0.04). Additionally, patients with higher educational degrees expressed higher concurrence with the notion that they better understand their lab results when the provider used a computer and showed it to them on a computer screen (Bachelor’s Degree or Above vs No High School Degree, OR 6.3, CI 1.9-21.0, P=0.006).
Patients with an undetectable HIV viral load were more likely to agree that their provider is skilled at using the computer (OR 0.1, CI 0.008 - 1.02, P=0.022). Compared to patients with a CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/µL, patients with a higher CD4 cell count (>500 cells/µL) agreed that they could talk easily with their provider when he/she is looking at the computer (OR 7.5, CI 1.6-34.7, P=0.02). Similarly, these patients less often agreed that “My visit is less personal because my provider uses the computer” compared to those who had CD4 cell count less than 200 cells/µL (OR 0.3, CI 0.09-0.8, P=0.04), but agreed at a higher percentage that they understand their medical problems better when their provider uses a computer and shows it to them on a computer screen (OR 1.7, CI 0.8-4.9, P=0.005).
Patients who had not disclosed their HIV diagnosis to others were more likely to answer negatively to the questions regarding provider computer use. They were less likely to agree that, “My provider spends enough time talking to me and examining me while using the computer” (OR 0.3, CI 0.1-0.6, P=0.003) and to the statement “I feel comfortable disclosing private information about myself while my provider uses the computer (OR 0.3, CI 0.1-0.8, P=0.02)”.
Twenty HIV providers completed the survey (Table 3). A majority of the providers were female (70%) and had practiced an average of 14 years (range 0.5 to 50 years). Ninety percent of providers felt comfortable using a computer and 95% (19/20) used the computer in the exam room while seeing a patient. One provider did not use the EMR. This provider was supervising physicians-in-training and was not responsible for direct data entry into the EMR as the provider’s primary role was teaching.
|Number (N)||Percent (%)|
|Years, Mean (SD)
Median (min, max)
10 (0.5, 50)
|Comfort level of computer use||Comfortable||18||90|
|Use of computer in exam room||Yes||19||95|
Table 3: Demographic, Computer Use, and Medical Characteristics of Provider Participants.
Provider survey results
Providers had mixed views regarding computer use during the visit (Table 4). Overall, providers were satisfied with the care they provided, the time spent listening to patients (75%), the medical care provided to patients (90%), and the attention given to patients (80%).
|Computer and Communication|
|When I use the computer in the exam room:|
|I can talk easily with my patient||60||40|
|I am able to focus on listening to my patients||50||50|
|I miss non-verbal patient cues||70||30|
|I am able to make good eye contact with my patient||50||50|
|it makes the visit feel less personal||60||40|
|Computer and Time|
|Because I use the computer in the exam room:|
|the visit is more efficient||75||25|
|Computer and Privacy|
|While I use the computer, I feel comfortable:|
|asking my patients questions about drug and alcohol use*||63||37|
|asking my patients about their sexual history*||58||42|
|listening to my patient speak about their sexual history*||32||68|
|Computer and Education|
|The computer helps:|
|my patient understand their lab result better when I use the computer screen||85||15|
|educate my patients||65||35|
|Satisfaction with Care|
|I am satisfied with:|
|the amount of attention I give to my patients||80||20|
|the medical care I provide to my patients||90||10|
|the amount of time I spent listening to my patients||75||25|
Table 4: Select Survey Responses: Provider Attitudes Toward Provider Computer Use in the Exam Room.
Patient and provider comparison
Patient and provider responses were compared for the questions that were consistent across both surveys. Compared to patients, providers demonstrated more consistently negative responses to questions regarding computer use during the clinical encounter. Patients expressed more overall satisfaction with the visit and found the encounter more positive compared to providers (Table 5). Additionally, a higher percentage of patients (56%) agreed that, “I can talk easily with my provider while provider uses the computer” compared to providers (15%) who assessed a similar statement, “I can talk easily to my patients while using the computer” (P<0.001). Almost two-thirds of patients (60%) agreed that, “I am satisfied with the attention given to the patient by the provider,” compared to less than one-third of providers (P=0.002).
|I am satisfied with the amount of attention given to the patient by the provider.|
|1. Strongly agree||119 (60.41%)||6 (30.00%)||0.002|
|2. Agree||72 (36.55%)||10 (50.00%)|
|3. Disagree||2 (01.02%)||3 (15.00%)|
|4. Strongly disagree||004 (02.03%)||001 (05.00%)|
|I am satisfied with the medical care given to the patient by the provider.|
|1. Strongly agree||122 (61.62%)||007 (35.00%)||0.042|
|2. Agree||069 (34.85%)||011 (55.00%)|
|3. Disagree||003 (01.52%)||001 (05.00%)|
|4. Strongly disagree||004 (02.02%)||001 (05.00%)|
|I can talk easily with my patient/provider with the use of computer.|
|1. Strongly agree||113 (56.50%)||003 (15.00%)||<0.001|
|2. Agree||076 (38.00%)||009 (45.00%)|
|3. Disagree||007 (03.50%)||005 (25.00%)|
|4. Strongly disagree||004 (02.00%)||003 (15.00%)|
|The provider is able to listen to the patient while using the computer.|
|1. Strongly agree||086 (43.22%)||002 (10.00%)||<0.001|
|2. Agree||101 (50.75%)||008 (40.00%)|
|3. Disagree||010 (05.03%)||007 (35.00%)|
|4. Strongly disagree||002 (01.01%)||003 (15.00%)|
|The provider makes good eye contact with the patient while using the computer.|
|1. Strongly agree||089 (44.72%)||002 (10.00%)||<0.001|
|2. Agree||086 (43.22%)||008 (40.00%)|
|3. Disagree||020 (10.05%)||008 (40.00%)|
|4. Strongly disagree||004 (02.01%)||002 (10.00%)|
|The provider has a better understanding of patient’s health care concerns because of the use of computer.|
|1. Strongly agree||075 (38.46%)||003 (15.00%)||0.002|
|2. Agree||085 (43.59%)||006 (30.00%)|
|3. Disagree||026 (13.33%)||008 (40.00%)|
|4. Strongly disagree||009 (04.62%)||003 (15.00%)|
|The relationship between patient and the provider is improved because of the use of computer.|
|1. Strongly agree||053 (26.90%)||002 (10.00%)||<0.001|
|2. Agree||091 (46.19%)||003 (15.00%)|
|3. Disagree||042 (21.32%)||012 (60.00%)|
|4. Strongly disagree||011 (05.58%)||003 (15.00%)|
|The visit feels less personal because the provider uses the computer.|
|1. Strongly agree||013 (06.57%)||003 (15.00%)||0.009|
|2. Agree||040 (20.20%)||009 (45.00%)|
|3. Disagree||090 (45.45%)||007 (35.00%)|
|4. Strongly disagree||055 (27.78%)||001 (05.00%)|
Table 5: Comparison of Patient and Provider Response to Select Survey Questions.
While most providers used the computer in the exam room, they demonstrated more negative perceptions of this topic compared to HIV-infected patients. These results align with systematic reviews that found computer use had neutral to positive effect on the patientprovider relationship in the outpatient setting [18-20].
Patients who did not use personal computers showed greater distaste for computer use in the exam room, perceiving this factor as negatively affecting the encounter in some way. For example, patients reporting weekly or monthly computer use were more likely to carry negative perceptions of computer use compared to those who used the computer daily. Research shows that approximately half of HIV infected patients with personal computers seek health information and knowledge on the Internet , using it as a source of coping, empowerment, and support . Patients in this study with personal computers validate these findings, and may recognize and value the positive effect of computers on their ability to cope with their illness.
Similarly, women were more likely to respond negatively to questions regarding computer screen use as a mode of communication compared to men. A study that assessed gender differences in learning among physiology students showed that the majority of male students preferred a multi-modal way of learning, which included a combination of visual (learning from charts or flow diagrams), auditory (learning from speech), reading-writing (learning from reading and writing), and/or kinesthetic (learning from touch, smell, sight, and taste), while the majority of women preferred a single learning modality . In our study, providers likely provided both auditory and visual approaches when teaching patients using the computer screen during the visit. Female patients may prefer less use of the computer screen for health education, however more research is necessary.
Patients with higher level of education expressed more positivity regarding computer use in the exam room compared to those with lower education levels. However, one study on tablet computer use in the exam room found the opposite: those with higher education levels (high school degree or higher) perceived use of tablet computers by providers as less secure compared to those who had not completed high school . More research can help clarify the impact of education level on patient perception of computer use in the exam room.
Patients with an undetectable viral load more often agreed their provider was skilled at using the computer. Similar to those with higher educational level, patients with higher CD4 cell counts also perceived computer use as a positive factor at a higher rate compared to patients with lower CD4 cell counts. A positive patientprovider relationship has been shown to be associated with improved adherence to antiretroviral therapy [14,16], and interventional trials have shown that improved patient-provider communication results in better disease outcomes [29,30]. While different factors of patient-provider communication play a role in the patient-provider relationship, computer use represents a small but critical part of this communication – future research should focus on dissecting which aspects of computer use patients find helpful and which lead to improved adherence and better health outcomes for patients, such as undetectable viral load and higher CD4 cell counts.
Patients in this study who disclosed their HIV status expressed more satisfaction with the amount of time the provider spent with them, aligning with research by Holt et al who found that HIV-infected patients use disclosure of their diagnosis as mechanism for coping, increased emotional support, and self-acceptance of having a chronic condition . Patients who had not disclosed their HIV status were more likely to carry shame and guilt . Reasons for non disclosure of HIV include lack of social support and fear of being stigmatized . The findings in this study may be attributed to the fact that those who have not disclosed their HIV status may not have an adequate support system and rely solely on their providers for discussion about HIV, suggesting that these patients may benefit from less computer use in the exam room.
Providers are often concerned that the use of computers in the exam room negatively affect communication with their patient . Similarly, despite most providers in this study using computers in the exam room, a majority of them felt that computer use made the visit less personal. The providers in this study likely chose to use the computer while interacting with patients due to the benefits of efficiency outweighing the risk of negatively affecting patient provider communication.
Our study showed a difference in perception between HIVinfected patients and their providers regarding computer use in the exam room, as providers expressed more concern about computer use than patients. Currently, computer training for providers focuses solely on how to use the EMR system interface for specific tasks, such as documentation and billing . More formalized training for physicians on how to interact and communicate with patients while using the computer may help ease this tension.
An initial limitation to this study was the lack of measurement or control around the degree of computer use by providers. This wide range of usage by providers likely affected how the provider interacted with the patient. Second, values such as HIV viral load and CD4 cell count were self-reported and not validated with external resources. Third, participating patients in the study were invited prior to or just after their encounter with the provider. The patients who were approached prior to their encounter may have been more aware of the provider using the computer in the exam room compared to those who were approached after their encounter, thus influencing the results. However, all patients gave informed consent and completed surveys immediately following their encounter. Lastly, despite having one researcher distribute the surveys, the surveys were completed anonymously, creating a risk of duplicate responses.
In conclusion, most HIV-infected patients were satisfied by the care they received when the provider used the computer in the exam room. However, patients that held a negative perception of computer use in the exam room included those who do not own personal computers, are women, have not achieved high school diploma or higher, have detectable HIV viral load, have low CD4 cell count, or have not disclosed their HIV status. These findings suggest that patients with these characteristics may benefit from less computer use by their provider in the exam room. Since providers viewed computer use as more negatively affecting the relationship compared to patients, the results of this study may provide reassurance that only a small subset of patients share this belief.
Dr. Lydia Barakat has served as a consultant for Gilead Sciences and received an honorarium. Yale University receives grant support from Pfizer, Gilead, Abbvie, ViiV, and Bristol Myers Squibb for studies that Dr. Michael J. Kozal serves and served as the principle investigator. Dr. Kozal is an employee of the federal government and does not receive any salary support from these grants. All other authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.
- Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (2016) Office based Physician Electronic Health Record Adoption, Health IT Quick-Stat #50. December 2016. [Ref.]
- Hsiao CJ, Hing E (2012) Use and characteristics of electronic health record systems among office-based physician practices: United States, 2001-2012. NCHS Data Brief 111: 1-8. [Ref.]
- Schoen C, Osborn R, Squires D, Doty M, Rasmussen P, et al. (2012) A survey of primary care doctors in ten countries shows progress in use of health information technology, less in other areas. Health Aff (Millwood) 31: 2805-2816. [Ref.]
- Howard J, Clark EC, Friedman A, Crosson JC, Pellerano M, et al. (2013) Electronic health record impact on work burden in small, unaffiliated, community-based primary care practices. J Gen Intern Med 28: 107-113. [Ref.]
- Joos D, Chen Q, Jirjis J, Johnson KB (2006) An electronic medical record in primary care: impact on satisfaction, work efficiency and clinic processes. AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2006: 394-398. [Ref.]
- Kern LM, Barrón Y, Dhopeshwarkar RV, Edwards A, Kaushal R, et al. (2013) Electronic health records and ambulatory quality of care. J Gen Intern Med 28: 496-503. [Ref.]
- Sinsky C, Colligan L, Li L, Prgomet M, Reynolds S, et al. (2016) Allocation of Physician Time in Ambulatory Practice: A Time and Motion Study in 4 Specialties. Ann Intern Med 165: 753-760. [Ref.]
- Verghese A (2008) Culture shock--patient as icon, icon as patient. N Engl J Med 359: 2748-2751. [Ref.]
- Mitchell E, Sullivan F (2001) A descriptive feast but an evaluative famine: systematic review of published articles on primary care computing during 1980-97. BMJ 322: 279-282. [Ref.]
- Lee WW, Alkureishi ML (2017) The Impact of EMRs on Communication Within the Doctor- Patient Relationship. In: Papadakos PJ, Bertman S (eds) Distracted Doctoring: Returning to Patient-Centered Care in the Digital Age. Cham: Springer International Publishing 101- 120. [Ref.]
- Andrinopoulos K, Clum G, Murphy DA, Harper G, Perez L, et al. (2011) Health related quality of life and psychosocial correlates among HIV-infected adolescent and young adult women in the US. AIDS Educ Prev 23: 367-381. [Ref.]
- Altice FL, Mostashari F, Friedland GH (2001) Trust and the acceptance of and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 28: 47-58. [Ref.]
- Bakken S, Holzemer WL, Brown MA, Powell-Cope GM, Turner JG, et al. (2000) Relationships between perception of engagement with health care provider and demographic characteristics, health status, and adherence to therapeutic regimen in persons with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Patient Care STDS 14: 189-197. [Ref.]
- Roberts KJ (2002) Physician-patient relationships, patient satisfaction, and antiretroviral medication Adherence among HIVinfected adults attending a public health clinic. AIDS Patient Care STDS 16: 43-50. [Ref.]
- Schneider J, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Li W, Wilson IB (2004) Better physician patient relationships are associated with higher reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection. J Gen Intern Med 19: 1096-1103. [Ref.]
- Martini M, D’Elia S, Paoletti F, Cargnel A, Adriani B, et al. (2002) Adherence to HIV treatment: results from a 1-year follow-up study. HIV Med 3: 62-64. [Ref.]
- Beach MC, Keruly J, Moore RD (2006) Is the quality of the patientprovider relationship associated with better adherence and health outcomes for patients with HIV? J Gen Intern Med 21: 661-665. [Ref.]
- Alkureishi MA, Lee WW, Lyons M, Press VG, Imam S, et al. (2016) Impact of Electronic Medical Record Use on the Patient-Doctor Relationship and Communication: A Systematic Review. J Gen Intern Med 31: 548-560. [Ref.]
- Lee WW, Alkureishi MA, Ukabiala O, Venable LR, Ngooi SS, et al. (2016) Patient Perceptions of Electronic Medical Record Use by Faculty and Resident Physicians: A Mixed Methods Study. J Gen Intern Med 31: 1315-1322. [Ref.]
- Irani JS, Middleton JL, Marfatia R, Omana ET, D’Amico F (2009) The use of electronic health records in the exam room and patient satisfaction: a systematic review. J Am Board Fam Med 22: 553-562. [Ref.]
- Beck RS, Daughtridge R, Sloane PD (2002) Physician-patient communication in the primary care office: a systematic review. J Am Board Fam Pract 15: 25-38. [Ref.]
- Rouf E, Whittle J, Lu N, Schwartz MD (2007) Computers in the exam room: differences in physician-patient interaction may be due to physician experience. J Gen Intern Med 22: 43-48. [Ref.]
- Likert R (1932) A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes. Arch Psychol 22: 55. [Ref.]
- Krosnick JA (1991) Response strategies for coping with the cognitive demands of attitude measures in surveys. Applied Cognitive Psychology 5: 213-236. [Ref.]
- Kalichman SC, Benotsch EG, Weinhardt L, Austin J, Luke W, et al. (2003) Health-related Internet use, coping, social support, and health indicators in people living with HIV/AIDS: preliminary results from a community survey. Health Psychol 22: 111-116. [Ref.]
- Reeves PM (2000) Coping in cyberspace: the impact of Internet use on the ability of HIV-positive individuals to deal with their illness. J Health Commun 5: 47-59. [Ref.]
- Wehrwein EA, Lujan HL, DiCarlo SE (2007) Gender differences in learning style preferences among undergraduate physiology students. Adv Physiol Educ 31: 153-157. [Ref.]
- Strayer SM, Semler MW, Kington ML, Tanabe KO (2010) Patient attitudes toward physician use of tablet computers in the exam room. Fam Med 42: 643-647. [Ref.]
- Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Ware JE Jr, Yano EM, Frank HJ (1988) Patients’ participation in medical care: effects on blood sugar control and quality of life in diabetes. J Gen Intern Med 3: 448-457. [Ref.]
- Griffin SJ, Kinmonth AL, Veltman MW, Gillard S, Grant J, et al. (2004) Effect on health- related outcomes of interventions to alter the interaction between patients and practitioners: a systematic review of trials. Ann Fam Med 2: 595-608. [Ref.]
- Holt R, Court P, Vedhara K, Nott KH, Holmes J, et al. (1998) The role of disclosure in coping with HIV infection. AIDS Care 10: 49-60. [Ref.]
- Hult JR, Wrubel J, Branstrom R, Acree M, Moskowitz JT (2012) Disclosure and nondisclosure among people newly diagnosed with HIV: an analysis from a stress and coping perspective. AIDS Patient Care STDS 26: 181-190. [Ref.]
- Linder JA, Schnipper JL, Tsurikova R, Melnikas AJ, Volk LA, et al. (2006) Barriers to electronic health record use during patient visits. AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2006: 499-503. [Ref.]
- Pantaleoni JL, Stevens LA, Mailes ES, Goad BA, Longhurst CA (2015) Successful physician training program for large scale EMR implementation. Appl Clin Inform 6: 80-95. [Ref.]
Download Provisional PDF Here
Article Type: RESEARCH ARTICLE
Citation: Yamahiro A, Frank C, Wang Q, Li F, Barakat L, et al. (2018) Computer Use in the HIV Primary Care Clinic: Patient and Provider Perspectives. J HIV AIDS 4(3): dx.doi.org/10.16966/2380-5536.158
Copyright: © 2018 Yamahiro A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.