Christopher Tyler, PhD
Professor, Division of Optometry

City University, Northampton Square,
Clerkenwell, London, UK


Degree Year Field OF Study Institution and Location
D.Sc. 2004 Visual Processing University of Keele, UK
Ph.D. 1970 Neurocommunication University of Keele, UK


Dr. Tyler is an internationally known and acclaimed vision scientist who is currently Head of the Brain Imaging Center of the Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute in San Francisco, which specializes in visual, cognitive and rehabilitation research. His research career is in visual neuroscience and computational vision with emphasis on form, symmetry, flicker, motion, color, and stereoscopic depth perception in adults and tests for the diagnosis of eye diseases in infants and of retinal and optic nerve diseases in adults.  One area of particular interest is the cortical mechanisms involved in the stereoscopic processing of 3D images to extract the depth signal from the binocular disparity between the two images, including the algorithm for the random-dot autostereogram, a method of presenting 3D information in a single image rather than a stereopair.  He developed a rapid method of recording brain responses across a wide range of conditions (the "sweep VEP"), which measurement of visual development with great accuracy. He has recently been developing advanced non-invasive methods for estimating the neural signal dynamics underlying the BOLD fMRI signal and bringing these capabilities to bear on evaluating deficits of motor control of eye movements in individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury, with a view to determining strategies for their rehabilitation. He has received support for his research on functional vision through many federal agencies, including the National Eye Institute (NEI), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Congressionally directed Medical Research Program (CDMRP), and has served on a wide range of federal review boards. He is also involved in international research collaborations as far afield as the UK, Australia, Germany and Taiwan.

Research Interest

  1. Psychophysics
  2. Electroencephalography
  3. Oculomotility
  4. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  5. Mathematical modeling
  6. Statistical analysis
  7. Image processing

Scientific Activities

Positions and Honors
2015 Keynote Speaker, APCV, Signapore
2013 Keynote Speaker, AAAS Forum, Washington, DC
2013 Keynote Speaker, European Conference on Visual Image Processing
2012 Keynote Speaker, Eye Research Institute and the Center for Visual Cultures, U Wisconsin
2012 Keynote Speaker, Computational Vision Summer School, U Tuebingen
2010 Invited Panelist, World Science Festival
2010 Keynote Speaker, Asian Visual Processing Conference
2009 Invited Panelist, World Science Festival
2007 Keynote Speaker, European Conference on Visual Perception
2002-2007 Member, VSS Program Committee
2001 Organizer, Inaugural Fall Vision Meeting
1995-98 Member and Chair, ARVO Program Committee (Visual Psychophysics Section)
1995-96 The Catherine D. Kettlewell Chair of Research in Visual Science
1994-95 Chair, Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, OSA Topical Meeting
1993-98 Member and Chair, Optical Society Topical Meeting on Visual Science and Its Applications
  Garland Clay Award, American Association of Optometry (with P. Apkarian and D. Levi).
1984-85 The W.A. Kettlewell Chair of Research in Visual Science


  1. Tyler CW, Likova LT (2017) Studying the retinal source of photophobia by facial electroretinography. Optom Vis Sci. 94(4):511-518.
  2. Samonds JM, Tyler CW, Lee TS (2017) Evidence of Stereoscopic Surface Disambiguation in the Responses of V1 Neurons. Cereb Cortex 27(3):2260-2275.
  3. Chen PY, Chen CC, Tyler CW (2016) The perceived depth from disparity as function of luminance contrast.  J Vis. 16(11):20
  4. Tyler CW (2016) Peripheral color demo. Iperception. 2015 Nov 6;6(6):2041669515613671. PMID: 27551354 Free PMC Article
  5. Tyler CW, Howarth C, Likova LT (2016) Editorial: Neural signal estimation in the human brain. Front Neurosci.;10:185.
  6. Solomon JA, May KA, Tyler CW (2016) Inefficiency of orientation averaging: Evidence for hybrid serial/parallel temporal integration. J Vis. 16(1):13.
  7. Tyler CW, Likova LT, Mineff KN, Elsaid AM, Nicholas SC (2015) Consequences of traumatic brain injury for human vergence dynamics. Front Neurol. 5:282. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2014.00282
  8. Goodrich GL, Martinsen GL,  Flyg  HM, Kirby J, Garvert DW, Tyler CW (2014) Visual function, traumatic brain injury, and post-traumatic stress disorder. J Rehab Res Devel 51(4):547-58. doi: 10.1682/JRRD.2013.02.0049.
  9. Tyler CW (2013) Binocular eye movements in health and disease. In Rogowitz, B.E., Pappas, T.N. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XXV, 8651:12.
  10. Tyler CW, Likova LT (2013) The neurometabolic underpinnings of fMRI BOLD dynamics. In Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease - Methods and Applications. Eds Papageorgiou TD, Christopoulos GI, Smirnakis SM. Intech Press, Ch 2, 2014, 21-47
  11. Tyler CW (2013) Visual Function and Its Management in mTBI. (Editor). SKERI Press: San Francisco.
  12. Tyler CW, Likova LT,  Elsaid AM, Nicholas SC (2013) Binocular eye movements in health and disease. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XVII, 8651-34.
  13. Samonds JM, Potetz BR, Tyler CW, Lee TS (2013) Recurrent connectivity can account for the dynamics of disparity processing in V1. J Neurosci. 33(7):2934-46.
  14. Li X, Huang AE, Altschuler EL, Tyler CW (2013) Depth spreading through empty space induced by sparse disparity cues. J Vis. 13(10). doi:pii: 7. 10.1167/13.10.7.
  15. Gorea A, Tyler CW (2013) Dips and bumps: on Bloch's law and the Broca-Sulzer phenomenon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 110(15):E1330.
  16. Chen CC, Chen CM, Tyler CW (2013) Depth structure from asymmetric shading supports face discrimination. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55865.
  17. Tyler CW, Elsaid AM, Likova LT, Gill N, Nicholas SC (2012) Analysis of human vergence dynamics. J Vis. 2012 12(11).
  18. Schira MM, Tyler CW, Rosa MG (2012) Brain mapping: the (un)folding of striate cortex. Curr Biol. 22:R1051-3.
  19. Tyler CW, Likova LT (2012) Estimating neural signal dynamics in the human brain. In Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 5:33, 10.3389/fnsys.2011.00033.
  20. Tyler CW, Likova LT (2011) Visual surface encoding: A neuroanalytical approach. In: Computer Vision: From Surfaces to 3D Objects. Tyler CW (Ed) Chapman Hall: New York.
  21. Tyler CW (2011) The role of midlevel surface representation in 3D object encoding. In Computer Vision: From Surfaces to 3D Objects. Tyler CW (Ed) Taylor & Francis: New York.
  22. Tyler CW, Likova LT (2010) An algebra for the analysis of object encoding. NeuroImage, 50: 1243-50.
  23. Schira MM, Tyler CW, Breakspear M, Spehar B (2009) The foveal confluence in human visual cortex: A high-resolution fMRI study. J Neuroscience. 29:9050-58.
  24. Likova LT, Tyler CW (2008) Occipital network for figure/ground organization. Experimental Brain Research 2008; 189(3): 257-67.
  25. Tyler CW, Likova LT (2007) Crowding: a neuroanalytic approach. J Vis. 7:16.1-9.
  26. Likova LT, Tyler CW (2007) Stereomotion processing in the human occipital cortex. Neuroimage 38:293-305.
  27. Tyler CW, Likova LT, Kontsevich LL, Wade AR (2006) The specificity of cortical area KO to depth structure. NeuroImage; 30: 228-38.

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