Professor of Oncological Virology
Foundation T. & L de Beaumont Bonelli for cancer research
|1962||Medical Degree summa cum laude, University of Naples|
|1968||Diploma of Specialist in Nervous and Mental Diseases summa cum laude, University of Naples|
|1970||Professorship (“Libera Docenza”) in Virology, Rome|
Giulio Tarro, graduated from Medicine School of Naples University. Research Associate at Division of Virology and Cancer Research, Children’s Hospital and Assistant Professor of Research Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio. He is a Professor of Oncological Virology at University of Naples. He worked for National Research Council, Rome, and for National Cancer Institute, Frederick Center, Maryland. He became Division Chief of Virology, and then Department Chief of Diagnostic Laboratories, D. Cotugno Hospital for Infectious Diseases, Naples; Emeritus, 2006-. Since 2007 he is Chairman Committee on Biotechnologies and Virus Sphere World Academy Biomedical Technologies, UNESCO, and Adjunct Professor Department Biology Temple University College of Science and Techology, Philadelphia. Recipient of the Sbarro Health Research Organization lifetime achievement award (2010). His researches have been concerned with the characterization of specific virus-induced tumor antigens, which were the “finger-prints” left behind in human cancer. Achievements include patents in field; discovery of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in infant deaths in Naples and of tumor liberated protein as a tumor associated antigen, 55 kilodalton protein overexpressed in lung tumors and other epithelial adenocarcinomas. President Foundation de Beaumont Bonelli for Cancer Research.
- Murine Virology
- Antiviral Chemotherapy
- Effects of inhibitors on viraI replication
- Studies on the role of herpesviruses in cancer
- Tumor immunology
- Pathology of AIDS
- American Chemical Society (since 2005)
- American Society for Microbiology (since 1967)
- American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (since 1969)
- New York Academy of Sciences (since 1973)
- International Association for Comparative Research on Leukaemia and Related Diseases
- ltalian Society for Microbiology
- Italian Cancer Society
- ltalian Society for lmmunology and Immunopathology
- Italian Society for lnfectious Diseases
- Interdisciplinary Group of Scientific Parapsycology (honorary member)
- Italian Society of Colposcopy and Cervical-Vaginal Pathology (honorary member)
- Italian Society of Immuno-Oncology (since 1990 president)
- International League “Doctors for the Abolition of Vlvisection” (since 1992 president)
- European Society for Clinical Virology.
- Member of Board of Directors Neuroimmuno Therapeutics Research Foundation, Spartanburg, USA
- Member or the American Biographical Institute Research Board of Advisors
- Corresponding Member or the American Association for Cancer Research (since 1997)
- Tiberine Academy
- Italian Society of Neurology
- AIDS Society of Asia and the Pacific
- UNESCOHebrew University of Jerusalem International School for Molecular Biology and Microbiology
- Member of Honorary Committee of Eur. Academy for the Economical and Cultural Relationships, Rome;
- Member of Scientific Medical Committee of Social Centre, Kiev - Ukraine;
- Environment Medical Doctors Association. ISDE - Italy;
- Italian Association for Viral Study and Research (president since 1995, hon. presid. 2009)
- International Society for Neurovirology
Honors And Awards
|Year||Honors and Awards|
|2012||AAAS member Royal House Aranan (Philippine) (Gold medal)
2012 International Prize Le Muse Florence-
|2011||International Peace Award|
|2011||Global Education Sanremo award|
|2010||National award for solidarity Fratres St. Giovanni La Punta|
|2010||Grand Prix Solidarite Dem. Rep. Congo|
|2009||Lifetime Achievement award, Sbarro Health Research Orgn. Philadelphia|
|2008||Award Pres. Italian Rep., silver medal|
|2007||Casentino award for medicine, Poppi, Arezzo|
|2006||Tables of Law award Internat. Assn. Cath. Apostleship, Naples|
|2006||Saint Pio for Peace award City of Fiuggi.|
|2006||Knight of Solidarity Internat. Award Norman Acad., Rome|
|2005||Medal of Minister for Culture, Viareggio|
|2003||Sorrento in the World Award, Sorrento|
|2003||Honorary Rector Ruggiero II University, Florida|
|2001||Honorary academic Member University Sancti Cyrilli, Valletta, Malta|
- Recherches sur le mechanisme d'action d'un groupe de medicaments a activité antivirale (produits chetoaldéhydiques du diphényle et leur derivés): Facteurs qui interferent sur leur activité protectrice in vivo. (with F. Magrassi, P. Altucci et al.). III Internat. Congr. Of Chemotherapy – Stutgart, July 1963. Proceedings, pag. 783 (1964).
- Studies on the mechanism of antiviral activity of ketoaldehyde derivates of biphenyl. (with F. Magrassi, P. Altucci et al.) International “Symposium on non specific resistance to virus infection, Interferon and viral chemotherapy” Smolenice, September 1964. Chemotherapia 9, 341, 1964.
- Studies on the mechanism of antiviral activity of biphenyl ketoaldeydes. (with F. Magrassi, p. Altucci et al.) Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the Hungarian Association of Microbiologists Akadémiai Kiado Budapest 1964, pag. 11.
- Properties of an avirulent influenza A virus variant derived from drug treated mice infected with PR8 virus. (with F. Magrassi, et al.) In “Antimicrobial Agent and Chemotherapy” pag 605 (1965).
- Properties of an avirulent influenza A virus variant derived from drug treated mice infected with PR8 virus. (with F. Magrassi, et al.) Arch. ges. Virusforsch, 18, 422, 1966.
- Effect of Streptovitacin A on replication of RNA virus (poliovirus). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 126, 535. 1967.
- Virus Specific, Labile, Nonvirion Antigen in Herpes Virus Infected Cells. (with A. B. Sabin) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 65, 753, 1970.
- Increase in Preexisting Cellular Antigen Combining Groups al Different Times after Infection with Different Viruses. (with A. Sabin) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 67, 731, 1970.
- Studies on the mechanism of antiviral activity of Ketoaldheide derivates of bifhenil. (with F. Magrassi et al.) Rev. roum. d'inframicobiol. 5, 275, 1968.
- Effect of two methisazone derivatives on herpes simplex virus replication. (with P. Mastroeni). VII Intern. Congress of Chemoterapy, August 1971 Avicenum, Czechoslovak Medical Press, Praga, pag. 273.
- Soluble Membrane Antigens of Lip and Cervical carcinomas: Reactivity with Antibody for Herpesvirus Nonvirion Antigens. (with A.C. Hollinshead) Science 179, 698, 1973.
- Apperance in Trypsinized Normal Cells of Reactivity with Antibody Presumably Specific for Malignant Cells. Proc. Nat Acad. Sci. USA 70, 325, 1973.
- Nonvirion Antigens Produced by Herpes Simplex Viruses I and 2. (with A. B. Sabin) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 70, 1032, 1973.
- Herpes Simplex and Herpes Genitalis Virus in Etiology of Some Human Cancers. (with A. B. Sabin) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, A70, 3225, 1973.
- Studies of Tumor-specific and Herpes Virus Non virion Antigens. (with A. Hollinshead et al.) Cancer Res. 34, 1122, 1974.
- Characterization of herpesvirus non virion antigens: relation to squamous cell carcinomas.(with A. Hollinshead, W. Rawls e P. Chretien) In E. Kurstak and R. Morriset (ed) “Viral Immunodiagnosis”, Academic Press, New York, 1974.
- Soluble Membrane Antigens of Lip and Cervical carcinomas: Reactivity with Antibody for Herpesvirus Nonvirion Antigens. (with A.C. Hollinshead) Year Book of Cancer 1974.
- Analysis and Description of Procedures Used in the Study of the Relationship of Herpes Simplex “Nonvirion” Antigens to Certain Cancers. In C. de Thé, M. A. Epstein, H. zur Hansen (ed.) “Oncogenesis and Herpesviruses” I.A.R.C., Lyon 1975.
- Preliminary studies of nonvirion antigens associated with Herpes Simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1- HSV-2) (with Accini R. et al.) Boll. Ist. Sieroter. Milanese 55, 120 1976
- Herpes Simplex virus nuclear non virion antigens detected by anticomplement immunofluorescence (with Giordano C. et al.) Tumori 62 (6) 609, 1976
- Herpes Simplex virus tumour associated antigens in cancer patients (with Di Gioia M. et al.) Tumori 62 (6) 615, 1976
- Cell-mediated immunity to Herpes Simplex virus types 1 and 2 antigens in leucoplakia and carcinoma in man. (with E. J. Shillitoe, T. Lehner) Oncology 33, 192, 1976.
- Detection of early antigens in nuclei of cells infected by cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex type 1 and 2 by anticomplement immunofluorescence and blocking assay to demonstrate their specifity.(with G. Giraldo, E. Beth, U. Hammerling, F.M. Kourilsky)Int. J. Cancer 19, 17, 1977.
- Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Herpes Simplex Virus Tumor-associated Antigen. (with R. Cocchiara et al.) Cancer 45, 938, 1980.
- An Immune Enzymatic Assay for Purified Tumor Associated antigen of Herpes Simplex Virus.(in coll.) Cellular and Molecular Biology 25, 329, 1980.
- Purification of Herpes Virus Tumor Associated Antigen from Human Kidney Carcinoma. (with R. Cocchiara et al.) Cancer 46, 1594, 1980.
- Foreword of the proceedings of the First International Congress of Viral Oncology The role of Virus in Human Cancer, vol. 1 Elsevier, North Holland, 1980.
- Herpes Simplex Virus Tumor Associated Antigen (HSV-TAA) Detected by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). in The Role of Viruses in Human Cancer, vol. 1, Giraldo e Beth Editori, Elsevier North Holland inc., pag. 108, 1980.
- Il TAF test: un nuovo metodo per la diagnosi di alcuni tumori. Rivista Medica della Svizzera Italiana 45, 245, 1980
- Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Tumor Associated Antigen. (with A. Karpas e T. Wheeler) International Workshop on Herpesviruses Soc. Edizioni Esculapio, Bologna 1981, pag. 232.
- Circulating Immunocomplexes (CIC) in Sera of Patients with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) - Associated carcinomas. (in coll.) International Workshop on Herpesviruses Soc. Edizioni Esculapio, Bologna 1981, pag. 236.
- Traitment de la herpetique avec le metiseprinol. Aspect clinique et histologique (with Gorgone G., Cavallaro N., Scaletta S., Carnazza S., Ricci M., Gala Trinchera G., Cordaro S.) Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtal. 192 113-123 1981
- Perspectives and limits of an immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Tumor-Associated Antigen (TAA). Cancer Detection and Prevenction 4, 47, 1981.
- An immunoenzymatic assay for herpes simplex virus tumour associated antigen in gynaecological oncology (with Magli G., Scimone C., Flaminio G., D’Alessandro G., Mascolo A., Magli R., Saladino I.) Eur. J. Gynaec. Oncol. 1982 ISSN: 0392.2936.III.2
- Further Studies on an Immunoenzymatic Assay for Heres Simplex Virus-Tumor Associated Antigen. (in coll.) Clin. Immunol. Immunopath.. 25, 126, 1982.
- Human tumor antigens inducing in vivo delayed hypersensitivity and in vitro mitogenic activity. (with A. Pederzini et al.) Oncology 40, 248, 1983.
- As above Immunomodulation amd Therapy in Cancer (with Pedercini A. et al.) ed. H.H. Fuderberg, P. Pontiggia, C. Ogler, Acta Medica edit. Congressi 1983, pag. 307
- Virological Investigation of Young Children with Acute Respiratory Syndrome Associated with Respiratory Synctyal Virus (RSV). (in coll.) in Medical Virology II, Editor L.M. de La Maza, E.M.. Peterson Elseiver Biomedical, 1983, p. 402.
- Quantitative Determination of Human CMV IgG Antibodies by solid phase enzyme immunoassay: comparison with CF test. (in coll.) in Medical Virology II - Editor L.M. de La Maza, E.M.. Peterson Elseiver Biomedical, 1983, p.392.
- Correlation between immune complexes and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Tumor Associated Antigen (TAA) in Human Cancer Sera. (with others) Cellular and molecular biology 29, 394, 1983.
- The role of herpes simplex virus in the neoplastic pathologies and diagnostic markers. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 4 (2),213, 1985.
- Serological and Virological Investigations of Young Children with Acute respiratory Syndrome Associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infection Disease 3 (1), 81, 1985.
- The pathogenesis of malignant tumors X Dies Italico-Iugoslavici Medicinae destinati, Lugnano, 1985
- Screening haemodialysis patients for infection with human immune deficiency virus (HIV). Journal of Infection 14, 1987, pag. 229.
- Absence of risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in recipients of hepatitis B vaccine. Eur. J. Epidem. 3, 1987, pag. 323.
- Viruses and immunodeficiences. “Regulation of Mammalian Cell Growth”, Capri 27-9/2-10-87, pag. VIR 9, Ciba-Geigy.
- Monoclonal antibody for tumor associated antigens induced by Herpes Simplex Virus. Advances in Management of Malignancies, Proceedings of an international congress, Ascoli Piceno, 3/6-5-1988.
- Laboratory methods for diagnosis of AIDS. Significance of sierological markers (with others) Giornale italiano di patologia clinica 3 (6) 1988, pag. 393
- Search for tumour antigens to be used for active specific immunotherapy. Abstract book of the 2nd Internationl Congress “Advance in Management of Malignannces, Ascoli Piceno 28/5-1/6/1990 pag. 36
- Histochemistry and Immunolohistochemistry in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma (with others) Abstract book of the 2nd International Congress “Advances in Management of Malignancies”, Ascoli Pisceno, 28/5-1/6-1990, pag. 93
- Epidemiological, serological, evolution aspects of HIV infection and related malignancies within Naples area (Jan '86-Dec. '89). Abstract book of the 2nd International Congress “Advances in Management of Malignancies”, Ascoli Pisceno, 28/5-1/6-1990, pag. 19.
- Methoden in vitro als tierversuchersatz bei immunologishen studien. in AA.VV. “Artze fur Die Abschaffung der Tierversuche” Bern 1990, p. 77 (German); p. 167 (French); p. 255 (Italian).
- Neutralization test and antibody titers in AIDS (with Valguarmera G. et al.) Clinica Europea 30 (2) June 1991
- HIV Infection and Serological Response (with Esposito C. et al.) Biochimica clinica 15, 1991
- Seroepidemiologic patten of HCV infection in Campania during the first six months 1992. (with C. Esposito et al..) Abstract, Journal of Hepatology supplement 1 to vol, 17, 5028, 1992
- Screening of HTLV-1 infection drug addicts from Campania region. Advances in Management of Malignancies Pisa, 6/10-12, 1993, pag.33 BIOS Ed.
- Lung carcinoma histopatholocic approaches for a prognostic valuation (with others) Advances in Management of Malignancies Pisa 6/10- 12/1995 pag. 237 BIOS ed.
- Antigenic regions of tumour liberated protein complexes and antibodies against the same (with. Marshak DR et al) In Third International Congress. Advances in Management of Malignancies. Pisa, Italy 6/10 December 1993 Biomed & Pharmacother 47:237
- Vom Anthropozentrismus zur Antivisektion: Tierschtz heute und Jurassic Park. Proceedings of International Medical Congress, Lugano 20-11-93. LIMAV, pag. 195 Ed. ASTRA/AG STG March 1995.
- Passive immunotherapy in AIDS patients Rivista Italiana di Ricerche Mediche e Chirurigiche Anno III vol. 3 n. 3 September 1995 pag. 11
- Anti-TLP antibodies in lung cancer patients. (with C. Esposito et al.) Internal Medicine Clinical and Laboratory 5 191-194, 1997.
- The Genoma Project: Ethical implications in oncology. In: Internal Medicine Clinical and Laboratory 6 67-72, 1998
- Immunoistochemical characterization of tumour liberated particles (TLP) expression pattern in
lung cancer. (with Giordano A. et al.) Anticancer Res 18:2365-2370, 1998
- Los derechos de los animales Actas Congreso medico international LIMAV Madrid Mayo 1997 ARTA STG enero 1998
- Effect of Bergarital on virus replication Rivista Italiana di ricerche Mediche e Chirurgiche Editrice Doctor’s Anno VI n. 2/4 aprile/dicembre 1998
- Neoangiogenesis and prognosis in lung cencer (with A. Perna et al.) Internal Medicine Clinical and Laboratory 7 111-113, 1999
- Tumor liberated protein (TLP). Its potential for diagnosis and therapy. Anticancer Res 19: 1755-1758, 1999
- Immunità da Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) (with others) Proceedings of International Workshop on Viruses Immunities and Diseases, Naples, October 1999
- AIMS and Perspectives for Tumor Liberated Protein (TLP) Proceding of the Joint International Cancer Conference “New Dimension in Cancer Biology on Therapy” Edition H. Ozer, K. Khalili, G.C. Giordano
- As above Riv It Ric. Med Chir 7:43-46 1999
- Vom Tumor freigesetze Proteine: Neuer Wendepunkt fur Diagnose und Therapie ohne Notwendigkeit von Tierversuchen. Humanmedizin ohne Tierversuche: Die Artze haben das wort. Berlin Mai 1999, ASTRA – AG STG pagg. 67-74
- Overview of the Lung Tumor Liberated Protein (TLP): Characterization of Genetic Immunologic Profile Internal Medicine Clinical and Laboratory 8 33-38, 2000
- Immunochemical evaluation of endothelal damage by angioinvasivity. (with Perna A, et al.) Int J. Clin Invest 9 :31-33, 2001
- Production and characterization of anti-TLP derived peptide RTNKZEASIC) monoclonal antibodies. (with Esposito C. et al.) Int Med 9:55-61, 2001
- Characterization of a Fragment Containing a Putative TLP DNA Sequence. Anticancer Research, 22: 2693-6, 2002
- UCV genotypes and antibodies reactivity what's relation? Journal of Hepathology Suppl. n.1, Vol.30, 1999 pag.209. (with C. Esposito, F. Morelli, N. Cuomo, A. Di Spirito)
- Evaluation of a new test for the determination of the genotypes HCV JournaI or Clinical Virology, 22/2: 174, 2002
- Hepatopaty and oxidative stress: clinical study on the efficacy of the depatox Int.. Clin. Invest. 1 : 15 -18, 2003
- Determination of the HBV polymerasis gene mutation in HBV ECA patients treated and naive. (with Esposito C. et al.) Journal of Clinical Virology suppl. August 12 27 2003,
- Progress and new hope in the fight against cancer: novel developments in early detection of lung cancer.(with C. Esposito), in InternaI Medicine 10 7-11, 2002
- Extracorporeal Whole Body Hyperthermia in the treatment of C Hepatitis.IJCI Int.. Clin. Invest. XII 1 – 4, 9 -10, 2004
- Stem cells. State of art and perspectives. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 58 463-464, 2004
- Early diagnosis of lung cancer by detection of Tumour Liberated Protein Journal of Cellular Physiol 203 1-5, 2005
- Biomolecular Markers of breast Cancer (with A. Nicolini and A. Carpi). Frontiers in Bioscience
- (United States), 2006, 11 pag. 1818-43
- New hope in early detection of NSCL cancer
- New Research Communications on Tumor Markers
- Nova Publisher, New York, N.Y., in press
- TLP in Screening, early diagnosis and follow up of NSCLC Int. J. Clin. Invest. 3-4; 75 – 82, 2006
- Tumor Liberated Protein from Lung Concer and Perspectives for Immunotherapy Journal of Cellular Physiology, 221: 26-30, 2009.
- Consideration on Epidemic Flu Viruses. (Int. J. Clin. Invest., 29 (1-2): 2009.
- Preface to lose weight without misteries will the Progressive Swing Diet by Michele D’Antoni, iUniverse, Inc. New York bloomingtore, 2009. Not any longer sick children: prevention of viral diseases in pregnancy. WABT Congress, Budapest Dec 10-12, 2010 – Book for Life Foundation.
- Giulio Tarro U.S. National Library of Medicine - National Institute of Health – National Center for Biotechnology Information, Pub Med EN/IT. Chiron, Settembre 2010.
- Emerging Viral Agent at Risk in Global Health Approciates to Early Diagnosis and Prompt Therapy, con C. Esposito. BIOCOMP 11: July 18-21, 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada (USA) CS REA Press.
- Lung Cancer Proteomics: Recent Advances in Biomarkers Discovery, con P. Indovina, E. Marcelli, P. Maranta. International Journal of Proteomics Vol. 2011 Article ID 726869, 7 pages.
- Mass – spectrometry based proteomic the road to lung cancer biomarker discovering Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine (PPPM) con P. Indovina, E. Marcelli, F. Pentimalli, P. Tanganello ed A. Giordano. Mass – spectrometry Reviews, Springer SMA Journal: PPPM in Cancer 2012.
- VirusSphere, Doctor Mag, The Medical Web Magazine.
- Peptide Search in the Tumor Liberated Protein (TLP) from Non Small Cell Lung (NSCL) Cancer.
- BIT’s 4th Annual World Congress of BioSoft, March 23-25, 2012, Beijing China.
- Search in the Tumor Liberated Protein (TLP) for Specific Peptides of Non Small Cell Lung (NSCL) Cancer. BIOCOMP 12: July 16-19, 2012, Las Vegas, Nevada (USA) CS REA Press.
- Tracking the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus in the Italian Region Campania, con C. Esposito, A. Di Spirito et al. Journal of Cellular Physiology Vol 227: 2813-2817, July 2012.
- TLP Sequenced and Studied for its Functions with Targets Diagnostic and Therapeutic, G. Tarro. Advanced Studies in Biology, Vol 5, n. 5, 191-198, 2013 HIKARI Ltd.
- From Sequence of Tumor Liberated Protein (TLP) to Function and Potential Targets for Diagnosis and Therapy, G. Tarro. BIOCOMP 11: July 2013, Las Vegas, Nevada (USA) CS REA Press
- Origin of the Viruses and their Evolutionary History, G. Tarro. Advanced Studies in Biology, Vol 5, n. 9, 423-430, 2013 HIKARI Ltd.
- New Development on Tumor associated Antigen with specific target toward Lung Cancer, G. Tarro. International Journal of Research in Medical and Health Sciences, Vol. 4, Issue 2, ISSN 2307-2083, 29 June 2014.
- Viral Latency, Molecular Pathogenesis and Malignancy, G. Tarro. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research © Vol. XIV, Issue III, Vers. I, 2014.
- L’epidemia da virus Ebola. www.assis.it , 27 agosto 2014.
- Micoplasmi e micoplasmosi: 20 anni dopo, G. Tarro, P. Altucci. Estratto da Il Policlinico – sez. Pratica, vol. 121 – N. 9, Settembre 2014, pagg. 229-245.
- Ruolo dell’Etio-patogenesi in Medicina Interna. P. Altucci e G. Tarro. Policlinico Sez. Med. 2014; 121: 61-81.
- Migratory Phenomenons, Biothics and Vaccinations Advances in Microbiology (accepted Sept 2015) in cod 8 I. F. = 0,94.
- Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poitean) Essential Oil,. Peel and Juice: a Review of Antimicrobiol, Anti-inflemmatory and other Medicinal Properties with Paolo Morabito et al. Clin. Microb. Rev. (accepted Sept 2015) in c.d.p. I.F. = 17.
- Lights and shadows of vaccinations. J of Vaccine Research and Development in c.d.p.
- Exegesis of Sabin poliovaccine in terms of medical science. J of Vaccine Research and Development in press.
- Le ombre dell’immunoprofilassi. Bollettino Ordine M.C. e O. Napoli, anno 85 n. 7 pagg. 12-13, dicembre 2015.
- Anti-Rhinovirus Activity of Ethyl1 4-(3-(2-(3-Methylisoxazol-5-Y1) Etthoxy) Propoxy) Benzoate (EMEB). Pharma Anal Acta 2016, 7:469.