Papadopoulou Lefkothea
Ting-Chao Chou, PhD
Hon. Professor of Pharmacology

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Beijing, DongDan, China
Phone: (201) 651-2576




MS degree (Pharmacology)

National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan


PhD degree (Pharmacology)

Yale University Graduate School, Connecticut, USA



Ting-Chao Chou born in Taiwan, received Ph.D. in Pharmacology from Yale University and Post-Doctoral Fellowship from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He joined Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and became a Member, and Professor of Pharmacology at Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences in 1988. He is Honorary Professor of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Visiting Professor at five universities. He retired from MSKCC in June 2013 and founded the PD Science, LLC (USA) promoting quantitative indexed pharmaco-dynamics, econo-green bio-medical research & development, and scientifically defined regulatory affairs and law. Dr. Chou published 326 papers with 25,145 citations (Google Scholar) with h-index of 67. He introduced The Median-Effect Theory of the Mass-Action Law (1976) and co-developed The Combination Index Theorem, CalcuSyn and CompuSyn software. His theoretical paper introducing the CI method and software (Chou TC & Talalay P. Adv. Enzyme Regul. 22:27-55, 1984) has been cited 4,921 times in over 741 bio-medical journals. Dr. Chou is inventor/co-inventor of 39 US Patents, most of them anticancer agents. He offered modern physico-chemical and mathematical interpretations of major concepts in the ancient oriental philosophy.

Research Interest

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Cell Biology; Immunology; Infectious Diseases; Life Sciences & Biomedicine - Other; Mathematical Methods In Social Sciences; Oncology; Pharmacology & Pharmacy; Philosophy; Thermodynamics; Transplantation.


Scientific Activities:

Teaching Experience


Founder & President, PD Science, LLC Paramus, NJ, USA


Co-Founder, Synatural Pharmaceuticals, LLC Guilford, CT, USA


Director, Preclinical Pharmacology Core Laboratory, Molecular Pharmacology & Chemistry Program (Drug Discovery Projects), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center


Head, Biochemical Pharmacology, Memorial Sloan‑Kettering Cancer Center


Professor of Pharmacology, Cornell University           Graduate School of Medical Sciences

Honors, Awards & Memberships


American Philosophical Association


The Harvey Society


American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology


American Society of Biological Chemists


American Society of Preventive Oncology


New York Academy of Sciences


American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics


American Association for Cancer Research


American Association for the Advancement of Science


Sigma Xi (Yale Chapter)


Recipient of eight Honors Grades at Yale Graduate School.
Yale University: University Fellowship


Distinguished Scholastic Award, KMU



  1. Creasey, W.A. and Chou, T.‑C. The binding of colchicine by sarcoma 180 cells. Biochem. Pharmacol. 17:477‑481, 1968. (IF: 4.65)
  2. Chou, T.‑C. and Lee, C.-Y. Effect of whole and fractionated cobra venom on sympathetic ganglionic transmission. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 8:326‑330, 1969. (IF: 2.68)
  3. Chou, T.‑C. L‑Asparagine biosynthesis and its control. A dissertation submitted to the Graduate School of Yale University in candidacy for the Ph.D. degree (1970), U.S. Copyright (1972).
  4. Chou, T.‑C. and Handschumacher, R.E. Production of L‑Asparagine by tumor cells and the effects of asparagine analogs. Biochem. Pharmacol. 21:39‑48, 1972. (IF: 4.65)
  5. Chou, T.‑C. Combinatorial analysis of multiple substrate‑ multiple product enzyme reactions. J. Theoret. Biol. 35:285‑297, 1972. (IF: 2.30
  6. Chou, T.‑C. and Talalay, P. The mechanisms of S‑adenosylmethionine synthesis by purified preparation of bakers' yeast. Biochemistry 11:1065‑1073, 1972. (IF: 6.58)
  7. Chou, T.‑C. and Lombardini, J.B. A rapid assay procedure for ATP: L‑methionine S‑adenosyl transferase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 276:399‑406, 1972. (IF: 3.37)
  8. Lombardini, J.B., Chou, T.‑C. and Talalay, P. Regulatory properties of adenosine triphosphate‑L‑methionine S‑adenosyl‑transferase of rat liver. Biochem. J. 135:43‑57, 1973. (IF: 4.28)
  9. Chou, T.‑C., and Talalay, P. Inhibition of ATP: L‑methionine S‑adenosyltransferase of bakers' yeast by structural analogues of ATP. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 321:467‑474, 1973. (IF: 3.37)
  10. Chou, T.‑C. Relationships between inhibition constants and fractional inhibitions in enzyme‑catalyzed reactions with different numbers of reactants, different reaction mechanisms, and different types of mechanisms of inhibition. Mol. Pharmacol. 10:235‑247. 1974. (IF: 4.12)
  11. Chou, T.‑C. General procedure for determination of median‑ effect doses by a double logarithmic transformation of dose‑ response relationships. Fed. Proc. 34:228-228, 1975.
  12. Chou, T.-C. Clarkson, B. D. and Philips F. S. Metabolism of cytosine-arabinoside (Ara-C) in vitro by normal and leukemic blood and bone marrow. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 16: 79-79, 1975.
  13. Chou, T.‑C., Hutchinson, D.J., Schmid, F.A. and Philips, F.S. Metabolism and selective effect of 1‑b‑D‑arabinofuranosyl-cytosine in L1210 and host tissues in vivo. Cancer Res. 35:225‑236, 1975. (IF: 9.28)
  14. Chou, T.‑C. and Talalay, P. Multiple inhibition and isobol of enzyme kinetic systems: Derivation of general equations. Fed. Proc. 35:284, 1976.
  15. Chou, T.‑C., Hutchinson, D.J., Schmid, F.A. and Philips, F.S. Occurrence of deaminated monophosphate nucleotide in extra‑ cellular sites after giving arabinofuranosylcytosine to mice. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 255:287‑291, 1975. (IF: 4.31)
  16. Philips, F.S., Chou, T.‑C., Hutchinson, D.J., Schmid, F.A. and Sternberg, S.S. Selective toxicity and chemotherapeutic efficacy. In Pharmacological Basis of Cancer Chemotherapy, pp.469‑484, Williams & Williams, Baltimore, 1975.
  17. Chou, T.‑C. Derivation and properties of Michaelis‑Menten type and Hill type equations for reference ligands. J. Theoret. Biol. 59:253‑276, 1976. (IF: 2.30)
  18. Chou, T.‑C. On the determination of availability of ligand binding sites in steady‑state systems. J. Theoret. Biol. 65:345‑356, 1977. (IF: 2.30)
  19. Chou, T.‑C. Comparison of the mass‑action law with the power law, the probit law and the logit low in dose‑effect analysis. Pharmacologist 19:165-165, 1977.
  20. Chou, T.‑C., Vidal, P. and Philips, F.S. Comparison of tissue distribution and fate of 2,2'‑anhydro‑1‑b‑D‑arabinofuranosyl ‑5‑fluorocytosine (AAFC) and 1‑b‑D‑arabinofuranosyl‑5‑fluoro-cytosine (AFC) in rats. Cancer Treatment Rep. 61:617‑624, 1977.
  21. Chou, T.‑C., Coulter, A.W., Lombardini, J.B., Sufrin, J.B. and Talalay, P. The enzymatic synthesis of S‑adenosyl‑L‑ methionine: Mechanisms and inhibition. In The Biochemistry of Adenosylmethionine: Chemistry, Metabolism and Biological Roles,, pp. 18‑36, Columbia University Press, 1977.
  22. Chou, T.‑C. and Talalay, P. A simple generalized equation for the analysis of multiple inhibitions of Michaelis‑Menten kinetic systems. J. Biol. Chem. 252:6438‑6442, 1977. (IF: 6.36)
  23. Chou, T.‑C., Arlin, Z., Clarkson, B.C. and Philips, F.S. Metabolism of 1‑b‑D‑arabinofuranosylcytosine in human leukemic cells. Cancer Res. 37:3561‑3570, 1977. (IF: 9.28)
  24. Clarkson, B., Fried, J., Chou, T.‑C., Strife, A., Ferguson, R., Sullivan, S., Kitahara, T. and Oyama, A. Duration of the dormant state in an established cell line of human hematopoietic cells. Cancer Res. 37:4506‑4522, 1977. (IF: 9.28)
  25. Chou, T.‑C., Burchenal, J.H., Fox, J.J., Watanabe, K.A., Chu, C.K. and Philips, F.S. Metabolism and effects of 5‑(b‑D‑ribofuranosyl) isocytosine in P815 cells. Cancer Res. 39:720‑728, 1979. (IF: 9.28)
  26. Chou, T.‑C. Analysis of age specific mortality rates of different causes by the median‑effect equation. Fed. Proc. 37:882-882, 1978.
  27. Chou, T.‑C. and Talalay, P. A general equation for multiple inhibition of Michaelis‑Menten and Hill kinetic systems by mutually exclusive and nonexclusive inhibitors. Fed. Proc. 38:645-645, 1979.
  28. Chou, T.-C. Comparison of dose-effect relationship of carcinogens following low-dose chronic exposure and high-dose single injection: An analysis by the median-effect principle. Carcinogenesis 1:203-213, 1980. (IF: 5.38)
  29. Chou, T.‑C. and Miller, D.G. A two‑parameter method for analyzing cancer incidence trends. 4th Annual Meeting of Am. Soc. Prev. Oncol., Chicago, Ill. March 6‑7,. p.10-10, 1980.
  30. Woodcock, T.M., Chou, T.‑C., Tan, T.C., Sternberg, S.S., Philips, F.S., Young, C.W. and Burchenal, J.H. Biochemical, pharmacological, and phase I clinical evaluation of pseudoisocytidine. Cancer Res. 40:4243‑4249, 1980. (IF: 9.28)
  31. Warrell, R.P. Jr., Chou, T.‑C., Gordon, C., Tan, C., Roberts, J., Sternberg, S.S., Philips, F.S. and Young, C.W. Phase I evaluation of succinylated acinetobacter glutaminase‑ asparaginase in adults. Cancer Res. 40:4546‑4551, 1980. (IF: 9.28)
  32. Chou, T.‑C. Carcinogenic risk assessment by a mass‑action law principle: Application to large scale chronic feeding experiment with 2‑acetylaminofluorene (2‑AAF). Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 22:141-141, 1981.
  33. Chou, T.‑C. and Talalay, P. Generalized equations for the analysis of inhibitors of Michaelis‑Menten and higher order kinetic systems with two or more mutually exclusive and nonexclusive inhibitors. Europ. J. Biochem. 115:207‑216, 1981. (IF: 3.26)
  34. Watanabe K.A., Reichman, U., Fox, J.J. and Chou, T.‑C. Substrate- specificity and mechanism of action of cytidine deaminase of monkey plasma and mouse kidney. Nucleoside CXIX. Chemico‑Biol. Interactions 37:41‑54, 1981.
  35. Chou, T.‑C., Feinberg, A., Grant, A.J., Vidal, P., Reichman, U., Watanabe, K.A., Fox, J.J. and Philips, F.S. Pharmacological disposition and metabolic fate of 2'‑fluoro‑5‑iodo‑1‑b‑D‑arabinofuranosylcytosine in mice and rats. Cancer Res. 41:3336‑ 3342, 1981. (IF: 9.28)
  36. Chou, T.‑C., Burchenal, J.H., Schmid, F.A., Braun, T.J., Su, T.L., Watanabe, K.A., Fox, J.J., and Philips, F.S. Biochemical effects of 2'‑fluoro‑5‑methyl‑1‑b‑D‑arabino- furanosyluracil and 2'‑fluoro‑5‑iodo‑1‑b‑D‑arabino- furanosylcytosine in mouse leukemic cells sensitive and resistant to 1-b-D-arabinosylcytosine. Cancer Res. 42:3957‑3963, 1982. (IF: 9.28)
  37. Teller, M.N., Stock, C., Bowie, M., Chou, T.‑C., and Budinger, J.M. Therapy of 7,12-dimethylbenz(A)anthrace3ne-‑induced rat mammary carcinomas with combinations of 5‑fluorouracil and 2‑a‑methyldihydro-testos-terone propionate. Cancer Res. 42:4408‑4412, 1982. (IF: 9.28)
  38. Grant, J.A., Feinberg, A., Chou, T.‑C., Watanabe, K.A., Fox, J.J., and Philips, F.S. Incorporation of 2'‑fluoro‑5‑ iodo‑1‑b‑D‑ arabinofuranosylcytosine into DNA of neoplastic and normal mammalian tissues. Biochem. Pharmacol. 31:1103‑1108, 1982. (IF: 4.65)
  39. Burchenal, J.J., Chou, T.‑C., Lokys, L., Smith, R.S., Watanabe, K.A., Su, T.L., and Fox, J.J. Activity of 2'‑fluoro‑5‑methyl‑ arauracil against mouse leukemias sensitive and resistant to 1-b-D-arabinosylcytosine. Cancer Res. 42:2598‑2600, 1982. (IF: 9.28)
  40. Warrell, R.P., J., Arlin, Z.A., Gee, T.S., Chou, T.‑C., Roberts, J., and Young, C.W. Clinical evaluation of succinylated acinetobacter glutaminase‑asparaginase in adult leukemia. Cancer Treat. Rep. 66:1479‑1485, 1982.
  41. Chou, T.‑C. and Talalay, P. Analysis of combined drug effects: A new look at a very old problem. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 4:450‑454, 1983. (IF: 13.05)
  42. Chou, T.‑C., Schmidt, F.A., Feinberg, A., Philips, F.S., and Han, J. Uptake, initial effects, and chemotherapeutic efficacy of harringtonine in murine leukemic cells sensitive and resistant to vincristine and other chemotherapeutic agents. Cancer Res. 43:3074‑3079, 1983. (IF: 9.28)
  43. Kolassa, N., Paterson, A.R.P., and Chou, T.‑C. Modification of nitro‑benzylthioinosine 5'‑monophosphate of pseudoisocytosine pharmacokinetics in mice and rats through inhibition of membrane transport. Cancer Treat. Rep. 67:51‑58, 1983.
  44. Lee, T.C., Chello, P.L., Chou, T.‑C., Templeton, M.A., and Parham, J.C. Synthesis of an N‑aminopyrazinonium analog of cytidine. J. Med. Chem. 26:283‑285, 1983. (IF: 5.48)
  45. Steckel, J., Robert, J., Philips, F.S., and Chou, T.‑C. Kinetic properties and inhibition of acinetobacter glutaminase‑ asparaginase. Biochem. Pharmacol. 32:971‑977, 1983. (IF: 4.65)
  46. Philips, F.S., Feinberg, A., Chou, T.‑C., Vidal, P.M., Su, T.L., Watanabe, K.A., and Fox, J.J. Distribution, metabolism, and excretion of 1‑(2‑fluoro‑2‑deoxy‑b‑D- arabinofuranosyl)‑thymine and 1‑(2‑fluoro‑2‑deoxy‑b‑D‑ arabinofuranosyl)‑5‑iodo‑cytosine. Cancer Res. 43: 3619‑3627, 1983. (IF: 9.28)
  47. Blumenreich, M.S., Chou, T.‑C., Andreeff, M., Vale, K., Clarkson, B.D., and Young, C.W. Thymidine as a kinetic and biochemical modulator of 1‑b‑D‑arabinofuranosylcytosine in human acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Cancer Res. 44:825‑830, 1984. (IF: 9.28)
  48. Blumenreich, M.S., Woodcock, T.M., Andreeff, M., Hiddemann, W., Chou, T.‑C., Vale, K., O'Hehir, M., Clarkson, B., and Young, C.W. Effect of very high‑dose thymidine infusion on leukemia and lymphoma patients. Cancer Res. 44:2203‑2207, 1984. (IF: 9.28)
  49. Chou, J., Chou, T.‑C. and Talalay, P. Conservation of laboratory animals by improved experimental design, generalized equations and computer analysis. Fed. Proc. 43:576-576, 1984.
  50. Chou, T.‑C., Lopez, C., Colacino, J.M., Feinberg, A., Watanabe, K.A., Fox, J.J., and Philips, F.S. Metabolic competition studies of 2'‑fluoro‑5‑iodo‑1‑b‑D‑arabino- furanosylcytosine in Vero cells and herpes simplex type 1‑infected Vero cells. Mol. Pharmacol. 26:587‑593, 1984. (IF: 4.12)