Leonard I. Boral
Leonard I Boral, MD, MBA, FCAP, FASCP
Professor and Director

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
University of Kentucky Medical Center


1963-1967 BS Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA
1967-1971 MD University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
1987-1991 MBA Mississippi College Clinton, MS



I am Director of Blood Bank Services and a Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and of Anesthesiology at the University of Kentucky Medical Center in Lexington, KY.
My educational degrees are a BS from Muhlenberg College, Allentown PA; an MD from the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, Phila. PA; and an MBA from Mississippi College, Clinton, MS.
I am Board Certified in Anatomic and Clinical Pathology as well as Blood Banking/Transfusion Medicine and did my specialty training at Syracuse Upstate Medical Center, Syracuse, NY  and at NYU/Bellevue Medical Centers, NY, NY.  Some of my prior positions have included Chairman of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Newark Beth Israel  Medical Center, Newark NJ and Director of Laboratories at Cook County Medical Center, Chicago, IL.

I am a member of numerous national and regional organizations and  committees  and currently, I am the College of American Pathologists’ Mid-Central Regional Commissioner, the Secretary of the Kentucky Society of Pathologists, and the Treasurer of the Kentucky Association of Blood Banks.


Research Interest

  • Transfusion Medicine
  • Apheresis - Therapeutic and Donor
  • Blood Donation
  • Blood Managemen
  • Tissue Banking
  • Coagulation
  • Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome
  • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
  • Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
  • Immune Thrombocytopenia
  • Point of Care Testing
  • Laboratory Management
  • Laboratory Inspection and Accreditation
  • Hepatitis
  • Serum Protein Electrophoresis
  • Immuno fixation Electrophoresis


Professional Activities:

University Appointments
1989 - 1991 Associate Professor Pathology,
University of Mississippi Medical Center
Jackson, MS
1992 - 2007 Associate Professor Clinical Laboratory Medicine and Pathology,
University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey
Newark, NJ
2007 - Present Professor Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
University of Kentucky Lexington, KY
Past Hospital and Blood Center Appointments  
1976 - 1978 Associate Chief Laboratory Medicine
Medical Director The of Blood Bank
Advisor Medical Cytology Wilford Hall Medical Center
Lackland Air Force Base
San Antonio, TX
1978 –1979 Staff Pathologist West Florida Hospital
Pensacola, Fl
1979 –1989 Medical Director Central Indiana Regional Blood Center
Indianapolis, IN
1989 –1991 Associate Director Laboratory Medicine
University of Mississippi Medical Center
Jackson, MS
  1991 –1999 Chairman Laboratory Medicine and Pathology
Medical Director Blood Bank
Newark Beth Israel Medical Center
Newark, NJ
1999 –1999 Chairman Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Mercy Health System
Darby, PA
  2000 – 2001 Staff Pathologist and Medical Director Blood Bank
Jersey Shore Medical Center, Neptune, NJ plus
Staff Pathologist Riverview Medical Center, Red Bank, NJ and
Medical Center of Ocean County, Brick, NJ
  2001 –2007 Director Clinical Pathology
Associate Director Blood Bank
Director Point of Care Testing Stroger Hospital of Cook County
Chicago, IL
2007 – Present Associate Director The Blood Bank
2009 – 2010 Interim Director  
2010 – present Director Blood Bank Services University of Kentucky Medical Center
Lexington, KY
2011- present Director Blood Bank Services at UK HealthCare Good Samaritan Hospital



  1. Davey, F.R., Gordon, G.B., Boral, L.I., Gottlieb, A.J., Gamma globulin inhibition of fibrin clot   formation. Ann. Clin Lab Sci. 6:72-77, 1976.
  2. Boral, L.I., Henry,J.B. The type and screen:  A safe alternative and supplement in selected surgical procedures.Transfusion 17:165-170, 1977.
  3. Boral, L.I., Crowley, K.M., Henry, J.B.  Adult outpatient transfusion clinic in a hospital based blood bank.Transfusion 17:607-610, 1977.
  4. Boral, L.I., Hill, S.S., Folland, A., Appollon, C.J.: The type and screen revisited. AJCP 71: 578-581, 1979.
  5. Boral, L.I., Cornell, T.A., Danemiller, F.J., Stanford W, Hill   SS: A guideline for anticipated blood usage during elective surgery.  AJCP 71: 680-684, 1979.
  6. Boral, L.I., Watson, M., Waid, M.E., Muller, V.H.: A mobile therapeutic pheresis program at a regional blood center. Plasma Therapy 3:  217-221, 1982.
  7. Mintz, P., Henry, J.B., Boral, L.I.: The type and antibody screen, in Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 2: 169-179, 1982.
  8. Boral, L.I., Cellular cyropreservation in blood banking. Laboratory Medicine 14: 246-251, 1983.
  9. Dortch, S.B., Boral, L.I.: Where to get blood for patients with antibodies to high-frequency antigens: problems and solutions. Immunohematology Check Sample.  Chicago, IL, A American Society of Clinical Pathologists; Vol. 26, Number 6,1983.
  10. Smith, D.E., Boral, L.I.: Organ donation: Part one - The age of transplantation.The Marion County Medical Society Bulletin 75: 10-12, 1984.
  11. Smith, D.E., Boral, L.I.: Organ donation:  Part two - Procurement, storage and clinical application of skin transplantation. The Marion County Medical Society Bulletin 76:12-16, 1984.
  12. Smith, D.E., Boral, L.I.: The age of transplantation. Council of Community Blood Centers Newsletter, P. 7-8, December 21, 1984.
  13. Boral, L.I.: Platelet transfusion therapy.  Laboratory Medicine 16: 221-227, 1985.
  14. Boral, L.I. Waid, M.E.: AIDS Review.  The Marion County Medical Society Bulletin 76: 18-19, July, 1985.
  15. Waid, M.E., Boral, L.I.:  The private physician and the healthy blood donor with a positive test for the HTLV-III antibody. The Marion County Medical Society Bulletin 76: 18-20, August, 1985.
  16. Waid, M.E., Distler, P.B., Boral, L.I.: Red cell inventory management.  Immunohematology Check Sample, American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL, Vol. 28, Number 4, 1985.
  17. Dortch, S.B., Woodside, C.H., Boral, L.I.: Limitation of the immediate spin crossmatch when used for detecting ABO compatibility. Transfusion 25:176-178, 985.
  18. Lamberson, R.D., Boral, L.I., Berry-Dortch, S.: Limitations of the crossmatch for detection of incompatibility between AB Red Blood cells and B patient sera. AJCP 86: 511-513, 1986.
  19. Brown, S.L., Boral, L.I.: Detection of mixed-field agglutination in a surgical patient receiving blood transfusion. Immunohematology Check Sample, American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL, Vol. 29, Number 2, 1986.
  20. Boral, L.I., Cheung, K., W-K:  The HLA antigens in organ grafting. I: Pretransplantation Tests.  Laboratory Management 24 (3): 61-65, 1986.
  21. Cheung, K., W-K, Boral, L.I.: The HLA antigens in organ grafting. II: Rejection and posttransplantation monitoring. Laboratory management 24: 61-65, 1986.
  22. Boral, L.I., Ellis, R., Steussy, C.N., Grissell, T.W., Ball, J.R., McDougal, R., Raju, M.V.S., Tzucker, J., Scamahorn, M., Ploegman, P., Harris, H., Griep, J.A., Muller, V.H., Workman R., Sutton, G., Noland, J.E., Lim, Y.S., Jay, A., Trammel, T.R., Colyer, R., McCarthy, L.J., McNiece, W., Bentz, E., Waid, M.E.: Survey of Blood Transfusion Practices in Indiana. Indiana Medicine 79: 621-627, 1986.
  23. Boral, L.I., Waid, M.E., Lee, R.M., McDougal, R.:  Impact of ALT testing on blood supplies.  Laboratory Management 24: 59-60, 1986.
  24. Chase, G.J., Boral, L.I. Establishing a bone bank: thoughts for a pathologist to consider.  Immunohematology Check Sample, American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL, Vol. 29, Number 3, 1986.
  25. Sutton, G.P., Jay, A., Lim, Y.S., Noland, J.E., Jr., Boral, L.I.:  The use of Rh immune globulin:  A review.  Indiana Medicine 81: 321-322, 1988.
  26. Hoffman, R., Lu, L., Jansen, J., Bruno, E., Brandt, J., Boral, L.I., Cheung, K.: Influence of T Lymphocytes on hematopoiesis in a patient with T cell hypoplasia. Am J Hematol 27: 118-124, 1988.
  27. Niranjan, S., Boral, L.I., Casas, V., and Palekar, S.: Papillary renal cell carcinoma arising in an allograft kidney. J Urolog Pathol 11: 151-160, 1999.
  28. Boral, L.I. and Cohen, M.H.: The need for rapid HIV testing in the perinatal period. Pathology Today, ASCP, March 2005, pp. 3,11.
  29.  Boral, L. I.: Conference Report, Highlights of the CLMA/ASCP ThinkLab '05 Conference & Exhibition, March 5-8, 2005; Chicago, Illinois. Medscape from WebMD.  6/8/2005.
  30. Torke, N., Boral, L., Nguyen, T., Perri, A., Chakrin, A.: Improvement and operational 
    efficiency through test result autoverification. Clin. Chem. 12:2406-8, 2005.
  31. Yogore III MG, Boral LI,  Kowal-Vern A, Patel H, Brown S, Latenser BA. Blood Bank services utilization in a burn unit. J. Burn Care Res. 27: 835-841, 2006.
  32. Smith, B, Wells, A, Alexander, B, et. al.: Curriculum content and evaluation of resident competency in clinical pathology (laboratory medicine): a proposal. L. I. Boral mentioned as a major contributor to the composition of the document for his participation in management and blood banking. Clin. Chem. 52:917-949, 2006
  33. Boral L., Kowal-Vern, A., Yogore III M., Patel H, Latenser BA: Transfusions in burn patients with/without co-morbidities. J. Burn Care Res. 30: 268-273, 2009.
  34. Boral, L.:Massive Transfusion. Channels (Newsletter of the Kentucky Association of Blood Banks), Winter 2009
  35. Boral, LI, MacIvor, DC, and Ribes, JA.: I Thought a Blood Transfusion Would Make Me Feel Better. Medscape, 3/28/2011.
  36. Rebel, A.,Hassan, Z., Boral, L., Lin, Y., DiLorenzo, A., and Schell, R.: Initial Results of a Structured Rotation in Hematology and Transfusion Medicine for Anesthesiology Residents.  Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 23:469-74, 2011.
  37. Boral, LI, Staubach Z, de Leeuw, R, MacIvor, DC, Kryscio, R, Bada, H.  Comparison of outcomes of group O vs. non-group O premature neonates receiving group O red cell transfusions.  Am J Clin Pathol.140:780-6, 2013.
  38. Lough, C, Boral, LI, and Ribes, J. Is this a hemolytic  transfusion reaction?
  39.  Boral, LI. Dec., 2013. CAP Expanded Transfusion Medicine Exercise. ETME-B1. Northfield, IL: College of American Pathologists, 2013. Case history and discussion of an ABO mismatched transfusion resulting in DIC.
  40.  Ferraris, VA, Boral, LI, Cohen, AJ, Smyth, SS, White, GS: Consensus Review of the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in People With Hemophilia A and B. Cardiology in Review 23:53-68, 2015.
  41. Boral, LI, Bernard, A, Hjorth, T, Davenport, D, Zhang, D, MacIvor,DC: How do I
    implement a more restrictive transfusion trigger of hemoglobin of 7 g/dL at my hospital? Accepted for publication in Transfusion, 12/2/2014. DOI: 10.1111/trf.12982
  42. Vilchez, V, Castellanos AL, Butterfield, DA, Mitov, MI, Boral, LI, Coqullard, CQ,
    Hoopes, C, Gedaly, R, and Marti, F. Immunomodulatory Effects of Dual PI3K/mTOR Inhibitors: Shifting the Balance between Effector and Regulatory Human T Cells. Submiitted to PLOS-ONE.
  43. Boral, B., Williams, D., and Boral, LI: Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy,
    case history and discussion. Submitted to Am. J. Clinical Pathology 10/2015.
  44. Boral, LI,  Morangatham, V, and Monohan,G.: ITP, new concepts. To be Submitted to Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, open journal


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