Charmaine Childs
Charmaine Childs
Professor of Clinical Science
  • :+44(0) 114 225 5691

Centre for Health and Social Care Research




Charmaine is Professor of Clinical Science and is an expert in critical illness and human trauma, specifically paediatric burn injuries and traumatic brain injury in adults.

Professor Childs is undertaking innovative research in a number of fields, including using infra-red thermal imaging for wound assessment after surgery and retinal imaging after mild brain injury. Charmaine is also an executive member and director of operations for South Yorkshire Institute for Innovation and Research in Child Health.

Research Interest

Trauma And Surgery

  • Mechanisms of secondary cerebral ischaemia and advanced intracerebral monitoring for hypoxia in critical care
  • Human thermoregulation: Fever and Brain Cooling
  • Prognostic performance of serum biomarkers
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and advanced spectroscopic imaging and infra-red thermal imaging for non-invasive thermometry
  • Outcomes: acute/long-term
  • Wound care and burn injury


Professional Activities:

Scientific Awards

  • 2008 TRAM Fellowship:  Brain Injury Research
  • 1993 European Burns Association/Solvay Duphar Scientific Prize
  • 1993 Cason Memorial Prize, British Burn Association
  • 1990 Cason Memorial Prize, British Burn Association
  • 1990 British Council Scholar/Burns Association of India
  • 1988 Seton Healthcare Scholar/ Emergency Medicine Research Prize

Board Membership and Consultancy

  • Invited Scientific Advisor: National Institute for Health Research UK:  Health Technology Assessment Programme, Quality Assurance Process
  • Invited Expert Grant Review: Medical Research Council (MRC)/Wellcome Trust Global Health Trials Scheme
  • Member,  Editorial Board: Scientifica
  • Member,  Editorial Board: Frontiers in Neurotrauma
  • Member,  Editorial Board: Nursing and Health Sciences
  • Editorial Board: Open Critical Care Medicine



  1. Childs C, Gwilt A, Sherriff G Homer C. Old and Cold: Challenges in the Design of Personalised Thermal Comfort at Home. Accepted Proceedings: Design for Health 2015
  2. Siah R, Childs C. Thermographic mapping of the human abdomen:Methodology in healthy subjects and wound infection surveillance in patients after closure of enterostoma. Journal of Wound Care 2015 Mar 2;24(3):112-20.
  3. Lim SF, Ong SY, Tan, YL Ng Y.S. Chan YH, Childs C, Incidence and predictors of new-onset constipation during acute hospitalisation after stroke. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2015 .
  4. Martínez-Morillo E, Childs C, García BP Álvarez Menéndez FV, Romaschin AD, Cervellin G, Lippi G, Diamandis EP, Neurofilament medium polypeptide (NFM) protein concentration is increased in CSF and serum samples from patients with brain injury. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory medicine 2015.
  5. Childs C, Wang L, Neoh BK, Goh HK, Zu MM, Aung PW, Yeo TT. Multi-parameter brain tissue microsensor and interface systems Calibration, reliability and user experiences of pressure and temperature sensors in the setting of neurointensive care. J Med Eng Technol 2014 Early Online: 1–12.
  6. Yeeles H, Trinick S, Childs C, Soltani H , Farrell T Postpartum infection in morbidly obese women after C-section: does early prophylactic oral antibiotic use make a difference? Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2014.
  7. Lesko MM, O’Brien SJ, Childs C, Bouamra O, Rainey TR, Lecky FE. Comparing the prognostic performance of S100B with prognostic models in traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 2014 Early on line :1-8
  8. Childs C., Ong Yi Ting; Zu, Myamyint; CHEUNG, Carol ,Kuan, Win Sen; Retinal-imaging in acute mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)reveals significant changes in vessel tortuosity: results froman imaging feasibility study . European Journal of Emergency Medicine 2014 21(5):388-389, October 2014.
  9. Childs C, Martínez-Morillo E, Aung PW, Zu MM, Diamandis A, Diamandis EP. Exploring the relationship between serum biomarkers, acute intracerebral changes and outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 2013.
  10. Childs C, Martínez-Morillo E, Aung PW, Zu MM, Diamandis A, Diamandis EP. Exploring the relationship between serum biomarkers, acute intracerebral changes and outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 2013 as Letter to the Editor (Impact Factor  2.15)
  11. Mattar IS, Chan MF, Childs C. Factors causing acute delirium in critically ill adult patients: a systematic review. ISRN Critical Care 2013.
  12. Lim DAFN, Chan MF, Childs C. Surrogate consent for critical care research: Public willingness, perceptions and influences for recruitment  Critical Care 2013 17:R5.
  13. Childs C, Kueh WL, Brain-body temperature differences in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI): A systematic review of the literature. Critical Care 2012 16: 2 Epub ahead of print  (IF 4.61)
  14. Lim-S-F. Childs C.  A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Non-Surgical Management Strategies for Constipation in Adults with Stroke. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2012
  15. Childs C, Liu K, Vail A, Pan J. Time-dependent relationships between human brain and body temperature after severe traumatic brain injury. International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research  2013,2 (1) 1-9 
  16. Lesko M, Jenks T, O'Brien S, Childs C, Bouamra O, Woodford M, Lecky F. Comparing  Model Performance for survival prediction using total GCS and its components in traumatic brain injury  Journal of Neurotrauma   (IF 4.25)
  17. Lesko MM, Jenks T, Perel P, O’Brien S, Childs C, Bouamra O, Lecky F. Models of Mortality Probability in Severe traumatic brain injury: Results of TARN modeling.  Journal of Neurotrauma 2012: epub ahead of print
  18. Childs C, Myintzu M, Aung WP, Yeo TT, Wu S, Li W. Infra-red thermal imaging of the inner canthus: correlates with the temperature of the injured human brain. Engineering 2012: 4; 53-56
  19. Vescovo E, Levick A, Childs C, Machin G, Zhao S, Williams S.   High precision calibration of MRS thermometry using validated temperature standards. NMR in Biomedicine 2012 published on line 2012
  20. Kueh WL, Childs C. A systematic review of differences between brain temperature and core body temperature in adult patients with severe traumatic brain injury JBI Library of Systematic Reviews 2012: 10 (26) 1504-1548
  21. Siah RCJ, Childs C. A systematic review of the ASEPSIS scoring system used in non-cardiac-related surgery Journal of Wound Care 2012; 21: (3) 124-130
  22. Childs C, WP Aung, MM Zou,F-G Chen, TT Yeo.  Mapping the incidence of focal tissue hypoxia after decompressive craniectomy. Brain Injury 2012, Vol. 26, No. 9: 1163–1163. (IF 1.925)
  23. Childs C, Ng A LC, Liu K, Pan J. Sources of  ‘missingness’ in brain tissue monitoring  datasets: an observational cohort study.  Brain Injury (IF 1.925) 2011; 25 (12) 1163-1169
  24. Childs C. Report of a consensus meeting on human brain temperature after severe traumatic brain injury: it’s measurement and management during pyrexia. Frontiers in Neurotrauma 2010 1: 146.
  25. Sacho RS, Vail A, Rainey T, King A, Childs C. The effect of spontaneous alterations in brain temperature on outcome: a prospective observational cohort study in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2010 Dec; 27(12):2157-64. (IF 4.25)
  26. Childs C. Knowledge transfer and the path of translational medicine. Nursing and Health Sciences (Guest Editorial) 2010 12: 284-286  (IF 0.684)
  27. Lesko MM, Woodford M, White L, O’Brien SJ, Childs C, Lecky FE. Using abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to classify CT features in the Marshall system. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010; 10: 72   (IF 2.67)
  28. Machin G Childs C. A systematic performance evaluation of brain and body temperature sensors using ultra-stable temperature references  J. Medical  Engineering and Technology 2010; 34 (3) 192-199 (IF 0.07)
  29. Childs C.  Machin G.   Reliability issues in human brain temperature measurement.  Critical Care 2009; 13:R106.
  30. Kirk D, Rainey T, Vail A, Childs C.2009 Infra-red thermometry: the reliability of tympanic and temporal artery readings for predicting brain temperature after severe traumatic brain injury CriticalCare. 2009; 13(3): R81. Published online 2009 May 27
  31. Kirk D. Rainey R. Vail A. Childs C.  Infra-red thermometry in neurocritical care: How reliable are tympanum and temporal artery measurements for predicting brain temperature?  Critical Care 2009 May 27; 13(3):R81. (IF 4.60)
  32. Childs C. Brain Hyperthermia after traumatic brain injury does not reduce brain oxygen. Letter to the Editor. Neurosurgery 2009: 64;3: March  E577 (IF 3.298).
  33. Rainey T. Lesko MM. Sacho, RH. Lecky FE. Childs C. Predicting outcome after severe traumatic brain injury using the serum S100B biomarker: results from a single (24h) time-point. Resuscitation 2009 80; 341-345 (IF 4.177)
  34. Childs C. Evidence-based medicine in BURNS revisited - the need for the CONSORT criteria Burns 2009: 35:158 (IF 1.962)
  35. Childs C. Human brain temperature: regulation, measurement and relationship with cerebral trauma: Invited Review Part 1. British Journal of Neurosurgery 2008: 22(4): 486 – 496 (IF 0.884)
  36. Sacho RH. Childs C. The significance of altered temperature after traumatic brain injury: an analysis of investigations in experimental and human studies: Invited Review Part 2 British Journal of Neurosurgery 2008: 22(4): 497–507 (IF 0.884)
  37. Childs C. Jones AKP. Tyrrell PJ. Long-term temperature-related morbidity after   brain damage: Survivor-reported experiences. Brain Injury 2008; 22:603-609   (IF 1.925)
  38. Kauppinen R. Vidyasger R. Childs C. Balanos G. Hiltunen Y.   Assessment of human brain temperature by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy NMR in Biomedicine 2008; 21: 388-395   (IF 3.124)
  39. Leach P. Childs C. Evans J. Johnston NJ. Protheroe R. King A. Transfer times for patients with extradural and subdural haematomas to Neurosurgery in Greater Manchester.  Br J Neurosurgery 2007 21: 11-15 (IF 0.884)
  40. Javid Khojasteh V. Edwards-Jones V. Childs C. Foster HA. Prevalence of toxin producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus in a paediatric burns unit. Burns 2007; 33:334-40. (IF 1.962)
  41. Childs C. Hiltunen Y. Vidyasagr  R. Kauppinen  R. Determination of regional brain temperature using proton magnetic spectroscopy to assess brain-body temperature differences in healthy human subjects. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 2007: 57 (1) 59-66 (IF 3.627)
  42. Childs C. Vail A. Leach P. Rainey T. Protheroe R. King AT.  Brain temperature and outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neurocritical Care 2006: 5; 1-5 (IF 2.367)
  43. Johnston N. King AT.  Protheroe R. Childs C. Treatment of raised body temperature after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI): methods and protocols used in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Resuscitation 2006: 70; 254-262 (IF 4.177)
  44. Childs C. Vail A. Protheroe R. King AT. Dark P.M. Differences between brain and rectal temperatures during routine critical care of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Anaesthesia 2005 60: 759-765  (IF 2.958)
  45. Soop M. Duxbury H. Agwunobe A.O. Gibson J.M. Hopkins SJ. Childs C. Cooper RG. Maycock P. Little R.A. Carlson G.L.  Euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia augments the cytokine and endocrine responses to endotoxin in humans.  Am. J. Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002; 282: E1276-E1285 (IF  4.395)
  46. Childs C. Renshaw A. Dunn KW. Davenport P.J.  The acute febrile response to burn injury in children may be modified by the type of intravenous fluid used during resuscitation- observations using fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or Hartmann's solution. Burns 2001; 27: 1-3  (IF 1.962)
  47. Renshaw A. Childs C. The significance of peripheral skin temperature measurement during the acute phase of burn injury. Burns 2000; 26: 750-753 (IF 1.962)
  48. Edwards-Jones V, Dawson MM, Childs C. A survey into Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) in UK burns units. Burns 2000 26 323-333 (IF 1.962)
  49. Childs C.  Edwards-Jones V. Dawson MM. Davenport P.J. Toxic shock syndrome -1 (TSST-1) antibody levels in burned children. Burns 1999; 25: 473-476 (IF 1.962)
  50. Childs C.  Harrison R.  Hodkinson C. Tympanic membrane temperature as a measure of core temperature. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1999; 80: 262-26630 (IF 2.616)
  51. Childs C. Goldring S. Hillier V. Tann W. Suprasternal Doppler ultrasound for assessment of stroke distance. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1998; 79: 251-255
  52. Childs C. Is there an evidence-based practice for burns? Burns 1998; 24: 29-33
  53. Childs C. The European Burns Association Research Directory Burns 1998;24: 25-28
  54. Edwards-Jones V. Childs C. Foster H A. A comparison of phenotypic properties of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from burned children and other patient groups. Burns 1996; 22: 384-389
  55. Childs C. Feeding the burned patient.  Br. J. Intensive Care 1995, May 125-130
  56. Wright IP. Griffiths M. Childs C.  A microprocessor based photoplethysmograph for use in clinical practice. Anaesthesia 1995: 50, 875-878
  57. Jenney MEM. Childs C. Mabin D. Beswick MV. David TJ. Oxygen consumption during sleep in atopic dermatitis. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 1995; 72: 144-146
  58. Childs C.  Edwards-Jones V. Heathcote DN. Dawson M.  Davenport PJ. Patterns of S.Aureus colonisation, toxin production, immunity and illness in burned children. Burns 1994; 20: 514-521
  59. Childs C. Little R.A. Acute changes in oxygen consumption and body temperature.after burn injury.  Archives of Disease in Childhood 1994; 71: 31-34
  60. Childs C. Studies in children provide a model to re-examine the metabolic response to burn injury in patients treated by contemporary burn protocols. Burns 1994; 20: 291-300 
  61. Childs C. Temperature Regulation in Burned Patients.  British Journal of Intensive Care; 1994: 4 129-134
  62. Childs C. Metabolic rate at rest and during sleep in a thermoneutral environment.  Archives of Disease in Childhood 1993;68: 658-661
  63. Childs C. Stoner HB. Little RA.  Cutaneous heat loss shortly after burn injury in children. Clinical Science 1992; 83: 117-126
  64. McGuinness K. Childs C.  Development of an indirect calorimeter for use in infants and young children.  Clinical Physics and Physiological Measurement 1992;12: 343-35
  65. Childs C, Stoner HB, Little RA. Changes in oxygen consumption and heat loss provide further evidence of an inappropriate thermoregulatory response during the acute phase of burn injury in children. Circulatory Shock 1991 34: 10
  66. Childs C. Stoner HB. Little RA.   Evidence of a central inhibition of heat loss during the acute phase of burn injury in children.  Archives of Emergency Medicine 1990;7: 303-304
  67. Childs C, Heath DF, Little RA, Brotherston M.  Glucose metabolism in children during the first day after burn injury. Archives of Emergency Medicine 1990;7:135-147
  68. Childs C, Hall T. Little RA, Davenport PJ. Dietary intake and changes in body weight in burned children.  Burns 1990; 16: 418-422.
  69. Childs C, Ratcliffe RJ, Holt I, Hopkins SJ.  Relationship between Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 and pyrexia in burned children.  Cytokine 1989: 1: 136
  70. Childs C, Little RA. The mechanism of increased heat content in the acute phase of the response to burning injury. Circulatory Shock 1990 31: 235.
  71. Childs C, Ratcliffe RJ, Holt I, Hopkins SJ, Little RA. The relationship between Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 and pyrexia in burned children.  In: CA Dinarello, M Kluger, M Powanda & J Oppenheim (eds)  Physiological and Pathophysiological Effects of Cytokines: Progress in Leucocyte Biology 1990;10b: 295-300
  72. Bianchi A, Bruce J, Childs C, Cooper AC, Kholi M, Morris-Jones P, Rothwell NJ   Increased adipose tissue activity in children with malignant disease.  Hormone and Metabolic Research 1989;21:587-642
  73. Childs C, Stoner HB, Little RA Davenport PJ.  A comparison of some thermoregulatory responses in healthy children and in children with burn injury.  Clinical Science 1989; 77: 425-429
  74. Childs C, Little RA.  Paracetamol  (Acetaminophen) in the management of burned children with fever.  Burns 1989;14:343-348
  75. Childs C. Fever in burned children. Burns 1988;14: 1-6
  76. Childs C.  Mechanisms for the development of fever in infants and children after burn injury. Circulatory Shock 1987;21: 369


  1. Cronin de Chavez A, Childs C, Kelly S, Todd AM, Burke D. Nice on Feverish Illness: Hypothermia and the assessment of sick children. British Medical Journal 2013: 347; 347; f4220
  2. Childs C. King AT, Lecky. Early hyperpyrexia after severe traumatic brain injury- no clear evidence yet for role in secondary brain damage. British Medical Journal 22 June 2009 http:/
  3. Childs C. Temperature measurement after severe head injury Anaesthesia 2004 Correspondence Web Site 11 May
  4. Childs C. Hadcock J. Ray A. Protheroe RP.  King AT. Temperature measurement after severe head injury  Anaesthesia 2004 59: 192
  5. Childs C. Dark P.  Non-invasive cardiac output assessment in children Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine 1999; 16:158-160 
  6. Brogan PA. Moulton C. Childs C. Phillips BA. The evaluation of a tympanic thermometer in children Lancet 1993; 342: 1364-1365
  7. Moir GC. Childs C. Shakespeare PG. Early diagnosis of staphylococcal toxaemia Burns 1993; 19:251

Book Chapters

  1. Childs C    Temperature regulation in Brooker C & Nicol M (2010) Alexander’s Nursing Practice, 4th edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. 2011
  2. Childs C.  Acute responses to burn injury in infants and children In Injury in the Young. RA Little and M. Ward-Platt (eds). Cambridge University Press 211-235;
  3. Childs C. Nutrition. In Kinsella, J (ed). Burns. Baillieres Clinical Anaesthesiology, 441-458 1997
  4. Childs C. Analysis of thermal metabolism in J.M. Kinney & H. Tucker (eds) Physiology, Stress and malnutrition. Functional correlates, Nutritional Intervention Lipincott-Raven. Pensylvania. 549-569 1997
  5. Childs C. The thermoregulatory response to burn injury in infants and young children.  In:  W Boeckx and J Moserova (eds)  Progress in Burn-Injury Treatment, Acco Leuven/Amersfoort pp 19-27. 1990




Autoimmune Journal Flyer