Xiao-Qing Wei
Xiao-Qing Wei
Senior Lecturer in Immunology

Oral and Biomedical Sciences
Dental School Cardiff University, Cardiff



Ph.D, University of Glasgow, UK
1979-1984 Medical degree, Beijing Medical University, Beijing, P.R. Of China



Dr. Xiao-Qing Wei graduated in medicine from Medical school of Peking University (Beijing Medical University) in Beijing, China in1984, and worked in the Beijing Hepatitis Research Institute of Young Hospital where he carried out research work on infectious diseases, particularly for hepatitis. In 1992, Dr. Xiao-Qing Wei joined a group in the University of Glasgow to investigate the role of inducible nitric oxide in infection and immunity and gained a PhD degree in 1996. His post-doctoral research has concentrated on investigating the role of the cytokines IL-15 and IL-18 in infectious and autoimmune diseases and seeking a practical anti-cytokine therapy to treat the inflammatory disorder, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2002, as a senior research fellow, his research was supported by the Arthritis Research UK to study the function of IL-18 and its receptors in RA. During the time Dr. Xiao-Qing Wei developed research into a field of IL-12 cytokine family and identified a novel immune suppressive cytokine IL-35. In 2004, he was pointed as a lecturer in The Dental School of Cardiff University in UK and then promoted further to be a senior lecturer. His research now is focusing on studying the role of novel IL-34 and IL-35 cytokines in the regulation of host immunity, particular tissue macrophages in regards to Candida infection, tumor survival, skin vaccine and skin/spinal wound healing. Dr. Xiao-Qing Wei is also interested in studying the functions of those cytokines associations with mineralized tissue destruction. 


Research Interest

  • Cytokines
  • Immune responses
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Periodontal inflammation
  • Inflammation related to neuron damages
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Electric field induced dendritic activation
  • Vaccination

Professional Activities:

Teaching Experience:

Apart from research I carried out for last 20 years. I have also successfully supervised many PhD, Msc and Undergraduate project-students in the laboratories of both University of Glasgow and Cardiff University.

  • 2004 to date: Teaching oral ecosystem in the class of 2nd year undergraduate students in School of Dentistry of Cardiff University
  • 2005 to 2010: Teaching immunology courses of intercalated class in School of Dentistry of Cardiff University.
  • 1998 to date: Supervising PhD and Master Students in Glasgow University and Cardiff University.

Research Networks And Collaborations In China

Honorary professorship in China;

  • 2001-2004: Honorary Professorship in Medical School of Peking University in Beijing, China
  • 2006-2009: Honorary Professorship in Southern Medical University in Guangzhou, China
  • 2006-2010: Honorary Professorship in Hebei Medical University in Herbei, China
  • 2011-2014: Honorary Professorship in Medical Engineering institute of Chinese Medical Academy in Tianjin, China.



  1. Song, B., W. Jiang, A. Alraies, Q. Liu, V. Gudla, J. Oni, X.Q. Wei, A. Sloan, L. Ni, and M. Agarwal. 2016. Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Future Potential for Bladder Tissue Engineering. Stem cells international 2016:6979368
  2. Zhang, G., M. Edmundson, V. Telezhkin, Y. Gu, X.Q. Wei, P. J. Kemp, and B. Song. 2015. The Role of Kv1.2 Channel in Electrotaxis Cell Migration. J Cell Physiol.
  3. Xu, R., H. F. Sun, D. W. Williams, A. V. Jones, A. Al-Hussaini, B. Song, and X.Q. Wei*. 2015. IL-34 Suppresses Candida albicans Induced TNFalpha Production in M1 Macrophages by Downregulating Expression of Dectin-1 and TLR2. Journal of immunology research 2015:32814
  4. Xia, T., X. F. Zheng, B. H. Qian, H. Fang, J. J. Wang, L. L. Zhang, Y. F. Pang, J. Zhang, X.Q. Wei, Z. F. Xia, and D. B. Zhao. 2015. Plasma Interleukin-37 Is Elevated in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Its Correlation with Disease Activity and Th1/Th2/Th17-Related Cytokines. Disease markers 2015:795043
  5. Liu, J., B. Zhu, G. Zhang, J. Wang, W. Tian, G. Ju, X.Q. Wei, and B. Song. 2015. Electric signals regulate directional migration of ventral midbrain derived dopaminergic neural progenitor cells via Wnt/GSK3beta signaling. Exp Neurol 263:113-121.
  6. Eastwood, S. E., A. John, S. A. Jones, H. Hodgson, D. Mason, R. Waddington, and X.Q. Wei. 2015. Osteoclastogenesis-related cytokines and peri-prosthetic osteolysis in revision metal-on-metal total hip replacements. Hip international : the journal of clinical and experimental research on hip pathology and therapy 25:355-360.
  7. Haan, N., B. Zhu, J. Wang, X.Q. Wei, and B. Song. 2015. Crosstalk between macrophages and astrocytes affects proliferation, reactive phenotype and inflammatory response, suggesting a role during reactive gliosis following spinal cord injury. Journal of neuroinflammation 12:109.
  8. Cavalcanti, Y. W., D. J. Morse, W. J. da Silva, A. A. Del-Bel-Cury, X.Q. Wei, M. Wilson, P. Milward, M. Lewis, D. Bradshaw, and D. W. Williams. 2015. Virulence and pathogenicity of Candida albicans is enhanced in biofilms containing oral bacteria. Biofouling 31:27-38.
  9. Boros-Majewska, J., L. Turczyk, X.Q. Wei, S. Milewski, and D. W. Williams. 2015. A novel in vitro assay for assessing efficacy and toxicity of antifungals using human leukemic cells infected with Candida albicans. J Appl Microbiol.
  10. Alves, C. T., X. Q. Wei, S. Silva, J. Azeredo, M. Henriques, and D. W. Williams. (2014). Candida albicans promotes invasion and colonisation of Candida glabrata in a reconstituted human vaginal epithelium. The Journal of infection.
  11. Boros-Majewska, J., N. Salewska, E. Borowski, S. Milewski, S. Malic, X. Q. Wei, A. J. Hayes, M. J. Wilson, and D. W. Williams. (2014). Novel Nystatin A derivatives exhibiting low host cell toxicity and antifungal activity in an in vitro model of oral candidosis. Medical microbiology and immunology.
  12. Rogers H, Wei X-Q, Lewis MAO, Patel V, Rees JS, Walker RV, Maggio B, Gupta A and Williams DW (2013) Immune Response and Candidal Colonisation in Denture Associated Stomatitis. J Clin Cell Immunol ISSN: 2155-9899 JCCI.
  13. Williams, D. W., R. P. Jordan, X. Q. Wei, C. T. Alves, M. P. Wise, M. J. Wilson, and M. A. Lewis. (2013). Interactions of with host epithelial surfaces. Journal of oral microbiology 5
  14. Sloan, A. J., S. Y. Taylor, E. L. Smith, J. L. Roberts, L. Chen, X. Q. Wei, and R. J. Waddington. (2013). A Novel Ex vivo Culture Model for Inflammatory Bone Destruction. Journal of dental research 92: 728-734
  15. Zheng XF, Hong YX, Feng GJ, Zhang GF, Rogers H, Williams DW, Lewis MAO, Xia CF, Song B and X.Q. Wei*. (2013) Lipopolysaccharide-induced M2 to M1 macrophage transformation for IL-12p70 production is blocked by Candida albicans mediated up-regulation of EBI3 expression PLoS ONE May 27;8(5):e63967. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063967. Print 2013
  16. Rogers, H., D. W. Williams, G. J. Feng, M. A. Lewis, and X. Q. Wei*. (2013) Role of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Enhancing Host Immune Response to Candida albicans. Clin Dev Immunol 2013:320168.
  17. Yang, J., Y. Zeng, C. Zhang, Y. X. Chen, Z. Yang, Y. Li, X. Leng, D. Kong, X. Q. Wei*, H. F. Sun, and C. X. Song. (2013). The prevention of restenosis in vivo with a VEGF gene and paclitaxel co-eluting stent. Biomaterials 34:1635-1643
  18. Long, J., X. Zhang, M. Wen, Q. Kong, Z. Lv, Y. An, and X. Q. Wei*. (2013). IL-35 over-expression increases apoptosis sensitivity and suppresses cell growth in human cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 430:364-369
  19. Feng, G. J., W. Cotta, X. Q. Wei, O. Poetz, R. Evans, T. Jarde, K. Reed, V. Meniel, G. T. Williams, A. R. Clarke, and T. C. Dale. (2012). Conditional disruption of Axin1 leads to development of liver tumors in mice. Gastroenterology 143:1650-1659
  20. Van Belle, T. L., H. Dooms, T. Boonefaes, X. Q. Wei, G. Leclercq, and J. Grooten. (2012). IL-15 Augments TCR-Induced CD4(+) T Cell Expansion In Vitro by Inhibiting the Suppressive Function of CD25(High) CD4(+) T Cells. PLoS One 7:e45299
  21. Do, D. V., C. T. Ong, Y. T. Khoo, A. Carbone, C. P. Lim, S. Wang, A. Mukhopadhyay, X. Cao, D. H. Cho, X. Q. Wei, G. Bellone, I. Lim, and T. T. Phan. (2012). Interleukin-18 system plays an important role in keloid pathogenesis via epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Br J Dermatol 166:1275-1288
  22. Wei XQ*, Rogers H, Lewis MA, Williams DW. (2011) The role of the IL-12 cytokine family in directing T-cell responses in oral candidosis. Clin Dev Immunol. 2011:697340
  23. Koutoulaki A, Langley M, Sloan AJ, Aeschlimann D and Wei XQ (2010), . Cytokine 49(2):177-84.
  24. Bo H, Wei XQ, Dong HL, Zhang Y, Lv P, Liu WH, Koutoulaki A and Gao XM (2009), Elevated expression of transmembrane IL-15 in immune cells correlates with the development of murine lupus: a potential target for immunotherapy against SLE. Scan J. Immunology. 69(2):119-29
  25. Chen L, Wei XQ*, Evens B, Jiang WG and Aeschlimann D. (2008) IL-23 promotes osteoclast formation by up-regulation of receptor activator of NFkB expression in myeloid precursor cells. Eur. J. Immunology. 38(10):2845-54.
  26. Anderson, I. E., D. Deane, S. Swa, J. Thomson, I. Campbell, D. Buxton, X. Q. Wei, J. Stewart, G. Russell, and D. M. Haig. (2008) Production and utilization of interleukin-15 in malignant catarrhal Fever. J Comp Pathol 138:131-144.
  27. Niedbala, W., B. Cai, XQ Wei, A. Patakas, B. P. Leung, I. B. McInnes, and F. Y. Liew. (2008) Interleukin-27 attenuates collagen-induced arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 108(2) 137-43.
  28. Antonopoulos C, Cumberbatch M, Mee JB, Dearman RJ, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Kimber I, Groves RW (2008) IL-18 is a key proximal mediator of contact hypersensitivity and allergen-induced Langerhans cell migration in murine epidermis. J Leukoc Biol. 83:361-367.
  29. Verri WA Jr, Cunha TM, Ferreira SH, Wei XQ, Leung BP, Fraser A, McInnes IB, Liew FY, Cunha FQ. (2007) IL-15 mediates antigen-induced neutrophil migration by triggering IL-18 production. Eur J Immunol.  37:3373-3380.
  30. Niedbala W, Wei XQ, Cai B, Hueber AJ, Leung BP, McInnes IB, Liew FY. (2007) IL-35 is a novel cytokine with therapeutic effects against collagen-induced arthritis through the expansion of regulatory T cells and suppression of Th17 cells. Eur J Immunol. 2007 Nov;37(11):3021-9
  31. Verri, Jr WA, Cunha TM, Parada CA, Wei XQ, Ferreira SH, Liew FY and Cunha FQ. (2006) IL-15 mediates immune inflammatory hypernociception by triggering a sequential release of IFNg, endothelin, and prostaglandin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103(25):9721-5.
  32. Mullen AB, Lawrence CE, McFarlane E, Wei XQ and Carter KC. (2006) Endogenous IL-18 is involved in immunity to Leishmania donovani but its absence does not adversely influence the therapeutic activity of sodium stibogluconate. Immunology. Jul 26; [Epub ahead of print].
  33. Mensah-Brown EPK , Shahin A , Al-Shamisi M , Wei XQ , Lukic ML (2006) IL-23 leads to diabetes induction after subdiabetogenic treatment with multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Eur J Immunol. 36(1):216-23.
  34. Millington OR, Wei XQ, Garside P, Mowat AM. (2004) Interleukin-15 is not required for the induction or maintenance of orally induced peripheral tolerance. Immunology.113(3):304-9.
  35. Wei XQ*, Niedbala W, Xu D, Luo ZX, Pollock KG, Brewer JM.(2004) Host genetic background determines whether IL-18 deficiency results in increased susceptibility or resistance to murine Leishmania major infection. Immunol Lett. 94(1-2):35-7.
  36. Kerr AR, Wei XQ, Andrew PW, Mitchell TJ (2004) Nitric oxide exerts distinct effects in local and systemic infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microb Pathog. 36(6):303-10.
  37. Lukic ML, Mensah-Brown E, Wei XQ, Shahin A, Liew FY. (2003) Lack of the mediators of innate immunity attenuate the development of autoimmune diabetes in mice. J Autoimmun. 21(3):239-46.
  38. Liew FY, Wei XQ, McInnes IB.(2003)  Role of interleukin 18 in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 62 Suppl 2:ii48-50.
  39. Pollock KG, Conacher M, Wei XQ, Alexander J, Brewer JM.(2003)Interleukin-18 plays a role in both the alum-induced T helper 2 response and the T helper 1 response induced by alum-adsorbed interleukin-12. Immunology. 108(2):137-43
  40. Komai-Koma M, Gracie JA, Wei XQ, Xu D, Thomson N, McInnes IB, Liew FY (2003).Chemoattraction of human T cells by IL-18. J Immunol. 170(2):1084-90.
  41. Niedbala W, Wei XQ, Campbell C, Thomson D, Komai-Koma M, Liew FY. (2002) Nitric oxide preferentially induces type 1 T cell differentiation by selectively up-regulating IL-12 receptor beta 2 expression via cGMP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99(25):16186-91.
  42. Nguyen KB, Salazar-Mather TP, Dalod MY, Van Deusen JB, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Caligiuri MA, Durbin JE, Biron CA.(2002) Coordinated and distinct roles for IFN-alpha beta, IL-12, and IL-15 regulation of NK cell responses to viral infection. J Immunol. 169(8):4279-87
  43. Mulero V, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Brock JH.(2002)Regulation of phagosomal iron release from murine macrophages by nitric oxide. Biochem J. 365(Pt 1):127-32.
  44. Khan IA, Moretto M, Wei XQ, Williams M, Schwartzman JD, Liew FY.(2002) Treatment with soluble interleukin-15Ralpha exacerbates intracellular parasitic infection by blocking the development of memory CD8+ T cell response. J Exp Med. 195(11):1463-70.
  45. Canthaboo C, Xing D, Wei XQ, Corbel MJ.(2002) Investigation of role of nitric oxide in protection from Bordetella pertussis respiratory challenge. Infect Immun. 70(2):679-84.
  46. Mulero V, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Brock JH.(2002) Regulation of phagosomal iron release from murine macrophages by nitric oxide. Biochem J 365(Pt 1):127-32
  47. Niedbala W, Wei XQ, Liew FY. (2002) IL-15 induces type 1 and type 2 CD4+ and CD8+ T cells proliferation but is unable to drive cytokine production in the absence of TCR activation or IL-12 /IL-4 stimulation in vitro Eur J Immunol 32(2):341-7
  48. Wei XQ, Orchardson M, Gracie JA, Leung BP, Gao BM, Guan H, Niedbala W, Paterso GK, McInnes IB, Liew FY. (2001) The Sushi domain of soluble IL-15Ra is essential for binding IL-15 and inhibiting inflammatory and allogenic responses in vitro and in vivo. J Immunol. 167(1):277-82
  49. Jiang H-R, Wei XQ, Niedbala W, Lumsden L, Liew FY, Forrester JV. Interleukin-18 is not required for IRBP peptide-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis: studies in gene-deficient mice. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2001;42:177-182.
  50. Wei XQ, Leung BP, Arthur HML, McInnes IB, Liew FY. Reduced incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice lacking IL-18. J. Immunl. 2001, Jan. 1; 166: 517-521.
  51. Smith XG, Bolton EM, Ruchatz H, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Bradley JA. Selective blockade of IL-15 by soluble IL-15 receptor alpha-chain enhances cardiac allograft survival. J Immunol. 2000 Sep 15;165(6):3444-50.
  52. McInnes IB, Gracie JA, Leung BP, Wei XQ, Liew FY. (2000) Interleukin 18: a pleiotropic participant in chronic inflammation. Immunol Today 21(7):312-315
  53. van't Hof RJ, Armour KJ, Smith LM, Armour KE, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Ralston SH.(2000) Requirement of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway for IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(14):7993-98.
  54. Leung BP, McInnes IB, Esfandiari E, Wei XQ, Liew FY.(2000) Combined effects of IL-12 and IL-18 on the induction of collagen-induced arthritis. J Immunol.164(12):6495-502.
  55. Lawrence CE, Paterson JC, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Garside P, Kennedy MW.(2000) Nitric oxide mediates intestinal pathology but not immune expulsion during Trichinella spiralis infection in mice. J Immunol.164(8):4229-34.
  56. Duffield JS, Erwig LP, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Rees AJ, Savill JS.(2000) Activated macrophages direct apoptosis and suppress mitosis of mesangial cells. J Immunol. 164(4):2110-9.
  57. Feng GJ, Goodridge HS, Harnett MM, Wei XQ, Nikolaev AV, Higson AP, Liew FY.(1999) Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases differentially regulate the lipopolysaccharide-mediated induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-12 in macrophages: Leishmania phosphoglycans Subvert macrophage IL-12 production by targeting ERK MAP kinase. J Immunol.163(12):6403-12.
  58. Gracie JA, Forsey RJ, Chan WL, Gilmour A, Leung BP, Greer MR, Kennedy K, Carter R, Wei XQ, Xu D, Field M, Foulis A, Liew FY, McInnes IB.(1999) A proinflammatory role for IL-18 in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest. 104(10):1393-401.
  59. Niedbala W, Wei XQ, Piedrafita D, Xu D, Liew FY.(1999) Effects of nitric oxide on the induction and differentiation of Th1 cells. Eur J Immunol. 29(8):2498-505.
  60. Wei XQ, Leung BP, Niedbala W, Piedrafita D, Feng GJ, Sweet M, Dobbie L, Smith AJ, Liew FY. (1999) Altered immune responses and susceptibility to Leishmania major and Staphylococcus aureus infection in IL-18-deficient mice. J Immunol.163(5):2821-8.
  61. Millar AE, Sternberg J, McSharry C, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Turner CM. (1999) T-Cell responses during Trypanosoma brucei infections in mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase. Infect Immun. 67(7):3334-8.
  62. Huang FP, Niedbala W, Wei XQ, Xu D, Feng GJ, Robinson JH, Lam C, Liew FY. (1998) Nitric oxide regulates Th1 cell development through the inhibition of IL-12 synthesis by macrophages Eur J Immunol. 28(12):4062-70.
  63. Ruchatz H, Leung BP, Wei XQ, McInnes IB, Liew FY.(1998) Soluble IL-15 receptor alpha-chain administration prevents murine collagen-induced arthritis: a role for IL-15 in development of antigen-induced immunopathology. J Immunol. 160(11):5654-60.
  64. Huang FP, Xu D, Esfandiari EO, Sands W, Wei XQ, Liew FY.(1998) Mice defective in Fas are highly susceptible to Leishmania major infection despite elevated IL-12 synthesis, strong Th1 responses, and enhanced nitric oxide production. J Immunol. 160(9):4143-7.
  65. MacLean A, Wei XQ, Huang FP, Al-Alem UA, Chan WL, Liew FY.(1998) Mice lacking inducible nitric-oxide synthase are more susceptible to herpes simplex virus infection despite enhanced Th1 cell responses. J Gen Virol. 79 (4):825-30.
  66. McInnes IB, Leung B, Wei XQ, Gemmell CC, Liew FY.(1998) Septic arthritis following Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase. J Immunol. 160(1):308-15.
  67. Coulson PS, Smythies LE, Betts C, Mabbott NA, Sternberg JM, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Wilson RA(1998) Nitric oxide produced in the lungs of mice immunized with the radiation-attenuated schistosome vaccine is not the major agent causing challenge parasite elimination. Immunology. 93(1):55-63.
  68. Zaragoza C, Ocampo C, Saura M, Leppo M, Wei XQ, Quick R, Moncada S, Liew FY, Lowenstein CJ.(1998) The role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the host response to Coxsackievirus myocarditis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 95(5):2469-74.
  69. Cattell V, Cook HT, Ebrahim H, Waddington SN, Wei XQ, Assmann KJ, Liew FY.(1997) Anti-GBM glomerulonephritis in mice lacking nitric oxide synthase type 2. Kidney Int. 53(4):932-6.
  70. Liew FY, Wei XQ, Proudfoot L.(1997) Cytokines and nitric oxide as effector molecules against parasitic infections. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 352(1359):1311-5. (Review)
  71. Casey JJ, Wei XQ, Orr DJ, Gracie JA, Huang FP, Bolton EM, Liew FY, Bradley JA. (1997) Skin allograft rejection in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase Transplantation. 64(4):589-93.
  72. McInnes IB, Leung BP, Field M, Wei XQ, Huang FP, Sturrock RD, Kinninmonth A, Weidner J, Mumford R, Liew FY.(1996) Production of nitric oxide in the synovial membrane of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis patients J Exp Med. 184(4):1519-24
  73. Proudfoot L, Nikolaev AV, Feng GJ, Wei WQ, Ferguson MA, Brimacombe JS, Liew FY. (1996) Regulation of the expression of nitric oxide synthase and leishmanicidal activity by glycoconjugates of Leishmania lipophosphoglycan in murine macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 93(20):10984-9.
  74. Wei XQ, Charles IG, Smith A, Ure J, Feng GJ, Huang FP, Xu DM, Muller W, Moncada S and Liew FY. (1995) Altered immune responses in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase. Nature. 375:408-411.
  75. Moss DW, Wei XQ, Liew FY, Moncada S and Charles IG. (1995) Enzymatic characterization of recombinant murine inducible nitric-oxide synthase. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 289(1):41-48.

Book Chapter:

The book Rheumatoid Arthritis - Etiology, Consequences and Co-Morbidities,
ISBN 978-953-307-847-2
Chapter: “IL-12 Family Cytokines in Inflammation and Bone Erosion of Rheumatoid Arthritis”


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