Refereed Articles:

  1. Harouse JS, Bhat S, Spitalnik S, Laughlin M, Stefano KA, Silberberg D, Gonzalez-Scarano F. Inhibition of entry of HIV-1 in neural cell lines by antibodies against galactosyl ceramide. Science 1991;253:320-325.
  2. Stefano KA, Collman R, Kolson D, Hoxie JA, Nathanson N, Gonzalez-Scarano F. Replication of a macrophage-tropic strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in a hybrid cell line, CEMx174, suggests that cellular factors are required for entry. J. Virol . 1993; 67:6707-6715.
  3. Sperlagh M, Stefano KA, Gonzalez-Scarano F, Liang S, Hoxie, Prewett M, Matsushita S, Herlyn D. Monoclonal and anti-idiotypic antibodies that mimic the gp120 epitope defined by anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody 0.5ß. AIDS 1993; 7:1553-1559.
  4. Sperlagh M, Hoxie J, Maruyama H, Stefano KA, Gonzalez-Scarano, F., Prewett, M., Liang, S., Matsushita, S., and Herlyn, D.  Polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies mimicking gp120 of HIV-1.  Viral Immunol. 1994; 7:61-69.
  5. Yahi, N., Spitalnik, S.L., Stefano, K.A., Verrier, B., Gonzalez-Scarano, F., and Fantini, J. Interferon-g decreases cell surface expression of galactosyl ceramide, the receptor for HIV-1 gp120 on human colonic epithelial cells. Virology1994; 204:550-557.
  6. Cole KS, Rowles JL, Murphey-Corb M, Clements JE, Unangst T, Robinson J, Desrosiers RC, Wyand MS, Montelaro RC. Evolution of envelope-specific antibody responses in monkeys experimentally infected or immunized with SIV and its association with the development of protective immunity. J. Virol 1997; 71:5069-5079.
  7. Cole KS, Rowles JL, Murphey-Corb M, Clements JE, Robinson J, Montelaro RC. A model for the maturation of protective antibody responses to SIV envelope proteins in experimentally immunized monkeys. J Med Primatol 1997; 26:51-62.
  8. Fuller DH, Simpson L, Cole KS, Clements JE, Panicali DL, Montelaro RC, Murphey-Corb M, Haynes JR. Gene gun-based nucleic acid immunization alone or in combination with recombinant vaccinia vectors suppresses virus burden in rhesus macaques challenged with heterologous SIV. ImmunolCell Biol 1997; 75:389-396.
  9. VanRompay KKA, Berardi CJ, Dillard-Telm S, Tarara RP, Canfield DR, Valverde CR, Montefiori DC, Cole KS, Montelaro RC, Miller CJ, Marthas ML. Passive immunization of newborn rhesus macaques prevents oral simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J Inf Dis 1998; 177:1247-1259.
  10. Cole KS, Murphey-Corb M, Narayan O, Joag SV, Shaw GM Montelaro RC. Common themes of antibody maturation in SIV, SHIV and HIV-1 infections. J Virol 1998; 72:7852-7859.
  11. Robinson JE, Cole KS, Elliott DH, Lam H, Amedee AM, Means R, Desrosiers RC, Clements JE, Montelaro RC Murphey-Corb M. Production and characterization of SIV envelope-specific rhesus monoclonal antibodies from a macaque asymptomatically infected with a live SIV vaccine. AIDS Res Hum Retro 1998; 14:1253-1262.
  12. Montelaro RC, Cole KS Hammond SA. Maturation of immune responses to lentivirus infection: implications for AIDS vaccine development. AIDS Res Hum Retro 1998; 14:S255-S259.
  13. Johnson RP, Lifson JD, Czajak SC, Cole KS, Manson KH, Glickman R, Yang J, Montefiori DC, Montelaro RC, Wyand MS, Desrosiers RC. Highly attenuated vaccine strains of simian immunodeficiency virus protect against vaginal challenge:  inverse relation of degree of protection with level of attenuation. J Virol 1999;73:4952-4961.
  14. Lockridge KM, Chien M, Dean GA, Cole KS, Montelaro RC, Luciw PA, Sparger EE. Protective immunity against feline immunodeficiency virus induced by inoculation with vif-deleted proviral DNA. Virology 2000;273:67-79.
  15. Cole KS, Paliotti MJ, Robinson JE, Montelaro RC. Maturation of envelope-specific antibody responses to linear determinants in monkeys inoculated with attenuated SIV. J Med Primatol 2000; 29:220-230.
  16. Cole KS, Alvarez M, Elliott DH, Lam H, Rowles JL, Clements JE, Murphey-Corb M, Montelaro RC, Robinson JE. Rhesus monoclonal antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus define nine binding domains on the surface envelope glycoprotein. Virology 2001; 290:59-73.
  17. Bissel SJ, Wang G, Ghosh M, Reinhart TA, Capuano S, Cole KS, Murphey-Corb M, Lifson JD, Wiley CA. Macrophages relate pre- and post-synaptic damage in SIV encephalitis. Am J Pathol 2002; 160:927-941.
  18. O’Sullivan C, Peng R, Cole KS, Montelaro RC, Sturgeon TJ, Jenson HB, Ling PD. Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus serological responses and viral burdens in HIV infected patients treated with HAART. J Med Virol 2002; 67:320-326.
  19. Van Rompay KKA, Greenier JL, Cole KS, Earl P, Moss B, Steckbeck JD, Pahar B, Rourke T, Montelaro RC, Canfield DR, Tarrara RP, Miller CJ, McChesney MB and Marthas ML. Immunization of newborn rhesus macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines prolongs survival after oral challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. J Virol 2003; 77:179-190.
  20. Cole KS, Steckbeck JD, Rowles JL, Czajak SC, Desrosiers RC, Montelaro RC. Removal of N-linked glycosylation sites in the V1 region of SIV gp120 results in redirection of B-cell responses to V3.  J Virol 2004; 78:1525-1539.
  21. Abdel-Motal UM, Gillis J, Manson K, Wyand M, Montefiori D, Cole KS, Montelaro RC, Altman JD, Miller N, Johnson RP.  Kinetics of expansion of SIV gag-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes following challenge of vaccinated macaques. Virology 2005;333:226-238.
  22. Steckbeck JD, Orlov I, Miller K, Chow A, Bruno J, Grieser HJ, Robinson JE, Montelaro RC, Cole KS.  Kinetic rates of antibody binding correlate with neutralization sensitivity to simian immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 2005; 79:12311-12320.
  23. Muthukumar A, Zhou D, Paiardini M, Barry A, Cole KS, McClure H, Staprans S, Silvestri G, Sodora D.  Timely triggering of homeostatic mechanisms involved in the regulation of T cell levels in SIVsm-infected sooty mangabeys. Blood 2005; 106:3839-3845.
  24. Forthal DN, Landucci G, Cole KS, Becerra JC, Marthas M, Van Rompay K.  Rhesus macaque polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies inhibit simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the presence of human or autologous rhesus effector cells.  J Virol 2006; J. Virol. 2006; 80:9217-9225.
  25. Steckbeck JD, Grieser HJ, Sturgeon TJ, Taber R, Chow A, Bruno J, Murphey-Corb M, Montelaro RC, Cole, KS. Dynamic evolution of antibody populations in a rhesus macaque infected with attenuated simian immunodefiency virus identified by surface plasmon resonance.  J Med Primatol 2006; 35:248-260.
  26. McBurney SP, Young KR, Nwaigwe CI, Soloff AC, Cole KS, Ross TM.  Lentivirus-like particles without reverse transcriptase elicit efficient immune responses.  Curr HIV Res 2006; 4:475-484.
  27. Steckbeck JD and Cole KS.  Dissecting the humoral immune response to simian immunodeficiency virus:  mechanisms of antibody-mediated virus neutralization.  Imm Res 2006; 36:51-60.
  28. Gupta S, Leutenegger CM, Dean GA, Steckbeck JD, Cole KS, Sparger EE.  Vaccination of cats with attenuated feline immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA vaccine expressing gamma interferon.  J Virol 2007; 81:465-73.
  29. Milush JM, Cole KS, Schmidt K, Durudas A, Pandrea I, Sodora DL. Mucosal innate immune response associated with a timely humoral immune response and slower disease progression after oral transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus to rhesus macaques.  J Virol 2007; 81: 6175-6186.
  30. Shen X, Leutenegger CM, Cole KS, Pedersen NC, Sparger EE. A feline immunodeficiency virus vif-deletion mutant remains attenuated upon infection of newborn kittens. J. Gen. Virol. 2007; 88: 2793-2799
  31. Milush JM, Reeves J, Gordon SM, Zhou D, Muthukumar A, Kosub DA, Chacko E, Giavedoni LD, Ibegbu CC,  Cole KS, Miamidian JL, Paiardini M, Barry AP, Staprans S, Silvestri G, Sodora DL. Virally Induced CD4+ T Cell Depletion Is Not Sufficient to Induce AIDS in a Natural Host.  J Immunol 2007; 179: 3047 - 3056.
  32. Bright RA, Carter DM, Crevar C, Toapanta FR, Steckbeck JD, Cole KS, Kumar N, Pushko P, Tumpey T, Smith G, Ross TM.  Cross-clade protective immune responses to influenza viruses with H5N1 HA and NA elicited by an influenza virus-like particle.  PLOS One 2008; 3:e1501.
  33. Sparger EE, Dubie RA, Shacklett BL, Cole KS, Chang WLW, Luciw :PA. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with a vif-deleted simian immunodefienciency virus proviral DNA.  Virol 2008; 374:261-72.
  34. Dubie RA, Maksaereekul S, Shacklett BL, Lemongello D, Cole KS, Villinger F, Blozis SA, Luciw PA, Sparger EE. Co-immunization with IL-15 enhances cellular immune responses induced by a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA vaccine and confers partial protection against vaginal challenge with SIVmac251. Virol 2009; 386:109-21.
  35. Kuhrt DM, Faith SA, Leone A, Picker L, Sodora D, Cole KS Evidence of early B cell dysregulation in SIV infection:  Rapid depletion of naïve and memory B cell subsets with delayed reconstitution of the naïve B cell populationJ Virol 2009; 84:2466-2476.
  36. Faith SA, Wu Y, Kuhrt DM, Steckbeck JD, Craigo JK, Clements JE, Cole, KS.   Induction of antibody mediated neutralization in SIVmac239 by a naturally acquired V3 mutation.  Virology 2010; 400:86-92.
  37. Cole KS, Fisher DJ, Wesel L.  Full Shutdown of Biocontainment Labs is Easier for Recertification:  Tradeline Reports 2010; July 7.
  38. Li B, Cole KS, Kuhrt DM, Gordon SN, Else J, Mulenga J, Allen S, Sodora DL, Silvestri G, Derdeyn CA.  Nonpathogenic SIV infection of Sooty Mangabeys is not associated with high levels of autologous neutralizing antibodies.  J Virol 2010; 84:6248-6253.
  39. Hartman AH, Homer LC, Fisher D, Trichel AM, Frerotte JM, Cole KS.  Evolution of a facility-specific BSL-3 training program for the University of Pittsburgh Regional Biocontainment Laboratory. Applied Biosafety 2010; 15 (3): 137-141.
  40. Milush JM, Mir KD, Sundaravaradan V, Gordon SN, Engram J, Cano CA, Reeves JD, Anton E, O'Neill E, Butler E, Hancock K, Cole KS, Brenchley JM, Else JG, Silvestri G, Sodora DL. Lack of clinical AIDS in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys with significant CD4+ T cell loss is associated with double-negative T cells. J Clin Invest. 2011 Feb 7. pii: 44876. doi: 10.1172/JCI44876.
  41. Kuhrt DM, Faith SA, Leone A, Sodora DL, Picker LK, Borghesi L, Cole KS. Naïve and memory B cells in the rhesus macaque can be differentiated by surface expression of CD27 and have differential responses to CD40 ligation. J Imm Methods 2011; 363: 166–176.
  42. Reed DS, Smith L, Dunsmore T, Trichel A, Ortiz L, Cole KS, Barry E. Pneumonic tularemia in rabbits resembles the human disease as illustrated by radiographic and hematological changes after infection.. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24654.
  43. Homer LC, Heflin DT, Manning CR, Cole KS.  Engineering and work place controls for the use of anesthetic gases during BSL-3 rabbit studies.  Applied Biosafety 2011; 16:167-176 (received Richard C. Knudsen Memorial Publication Award).
  44. Homer LC, Hartman AL, Heflin DT, Trichel AM, Reed DS, Cole KS.  Enhancement of the mentored training program for investigative staff at the University of Pittsburgh Regional Biocontainment Laboratory.  Applied Biosafety 2011; 16:231-239.
  45. Hartman, AH, Homer LC, Cole KS.  Verification of inactivation methods for removal of biological materials from a biosafety level 3 select agent facility.  Applied Biosafety 2012; 17:70-75.
  46. Cole KS, Fisher DJ, Westfall S eds.  Management Principles for Building and Operating Biocontainment Facilities:  Ten Years of Planning and Management Lessons Learned.  2013; Tradeline, Inc.
  47. Cole KS, Smith RE.  Successful leadership for a high-containment facility.  In:  “Management Principles for Building and Operating Biocontainment Facilities:  Ten Years of Planning and Management Lessons Learned.”  2013; Tradeline, Inc.; Cole KS, Fisher DJ,  Westfall S eds. pp 35-42.
  48. Reed DS, Smith LP, Cole KS, Santiago AE, Mann BJ, Barry EM.  Live attenuated mutants of Francisella tularensis  protect rabbits against aerosol challenge with a virulent type A strain.  Infect and Immunity 2014; DOI:10.1128/IAI.01498-14 (epub ahead of print).
  49. Heflin DT, Fisher D, Kosky JB, Homer LC, Reed DS, Cole KS, Trichel AM, Hartman AL.  Development of novel mechanisms for housing, handling and remote monitoring of common marmosets at animal biosafety level 3.  Path and Dis 24 FEB 2014, DOI: 10.1111/2049-632X.12140.
  50. Scanga CA, Lopresti BJ, Tomko J, Frye LJ, Coleman TM, Fillmore D, Carney JP, Lin PL, Flynn JL, Gardner CL, Sun C, Klimstra WB, Ryman KD, Reed DS, Fisher DJ, Cole KS.  In vivo imaging in an ABSL-3 Regional Biocontainment Laboratory.  Path and Dis 18 JUN 2014, DOI: 10.1111/2049-632X.12186.
  51. Byrne G and Cole KS.  Emerging Infections, Biosecurity and Public Health.  Commentary in Special Issue:  Biosecurity; Path and Dis 14 JUL 2014, DOI: 10.1111/2049-632X.12198.
  52. Murphy MK, Wetzel KS, Kilgore KM, Smith A, Burton SL, Reddy S, Francella N, Sodora DL, Silvestri G, Cole KS, Villinger F, Robinson JE, Pulendran B, Hunter E, Collman RG, Amara RR, Derdeyn CA.  A novel SIVsm Env panel reveals that SIVmac239 Env elicits tier 2/3 neutralizing antibody in Rhesus macaques across vaccine regimens.  J Virol 2015 (In Press).

Manuscripts Submitted and In Preparation:

  1. Treants M, Nelson J, Koday M, Chevalier A, Kalinoski H, Nieusma T, Lee PS, Ward AB, Wilson IA, Smee DF, Dagley A, Hartman AL, Reed DS, Lundy JD, Trichel AM, Cole KS, Baker D, Fuller DH.  A designed hemagglutinin stem-ginding protein provides in vivo protection from influenza independent of a host immune response.  Nat Med (In Review).
  2. Homer LC, Heflin DH, Walker R, Cole KS. Risk evaluation and mitigation for rabbit caging at biosafety level 3.  Applied Biosafety 2015; Submitted. 
  3. Cole K.S., Beigi R, Reed DS.  Aerosolized influenza infection results in increased morbidity and mortality in the pregnant mouse model  (In preparation).
  4. Gage E, Reed DS, Trichel A, Oury TD, Beigi R, Cole KS. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with enhanced disease in influenza infection of pregnant ferrets.  (In preparation).
  5. Faith SA, Kuhrt DM, Murphey-Corb M, Kodama T, Cole, KS.   A single point mutation in the amino terminal alpha-helix of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gp41 alters neutralization by rhesus monoclonal antibodies recognizing epitopes in gp120.  (In preparation).
  6. Faith SA, Grieser HJ, Reeves JD, Werkman JW, Puffer BA, Doms R, Hoxie JA, Robinson JE, Cole KS.  Rhesus monoclonal antibodies neutralize simian immunodeficiency virus by inhibiting envelope-coreceptor interactions. (In Preparation).

Invited Reviews, Book Chapters:

  1. Harouse J, Stefano KA, Gonzalez-Scarano F. Quantitative analysis of human immunodeficiency virus internalization. Methods in Molecular Genetics 1993; 4:93-99.
  2. Montelaro RC, Cole KS, Hammond SA. Maturation of immune responses to lentivirus infection:  implications for AIDS vaccine development. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 1998; 14:255-259.
  3. Steckbeck JD and Cole KS.  Dissection of humoral immune response to simian immunodeficiency virus: mechanisms of antibody-mediated virus neutralization. Imm. Res. 2006; 36:51-60.
  4. Editor for special issue of Current HIV Research:  Hot Topics: Antibody Neutralization. Curr HIV Res 2007;  Vol 5: No 6 (Nov). 
  5. Editor for special issue of Pathogen and Disease: “Emerging Infections, Biosecurity and Public Health”.  Path and Dis 2014:  July (online).

Other publications:

Stefano KA. Cellular Factors Associated With Entry of HIV-1 Strain 89.6. University of Pennsylvania Doctorate Dissertation 1994.


Kelly Stefano Cole, PhD

Director of Clinical Microbiology


  • : 412-359-8382

  • DEPARTMENTUniversity of Pittsburgh